Growing crayfish for sale
Hello, dear readers of Startapoff!
Breeding crayfish is a business idea and a guaranteed high income. Judge for yourself: there is always a colossal demand for live crayfish, their price is rather big, and their cultivation does not require much labor.
You will learn how to start your own business in this area, grow crayfish and establish sales of products.
Your goal is to get a stable income from the farm for the intensive cultivation of long-toed or Australian crayfish. To achieve it, reservoirs with a total area of 1000 square meters are needed.
Half of the indoor, winter-type reservoirs with non-freezing water for year-round cultivation and half open for hatching in natural conditions. Such a farm, subject to the crustacean breeding technology, will bring 3 tons of product per year. Production will bring the first income in a year. You will reach the planned capacity by the 3rd year of operation.
This method of growing provides marketable crayfish in a year and a half. Under natural conditions, it grows to the desired size in the middle lane and northern regions of Russia in 4-5 years.
Consumption of crustaceans per capita in Russia is growing by 2-15% annually, depending on the region, according to the Discovery Reserch Group marketing agency.
Level of competition in the market
This niche in the Russian market is poorly developed in comparison with the USA and European countries. The industrial cultivation of crustaceans requires significant start-up investments, so those who have all or at least half of the funds needed to start are taken for it.
The demand for these products in the markets of our country is consistently high, regardless of the region. Buyers are not deterred by the high price of this product. It is considered a delicacy, therefore it is eagerly bought by retail and wholesale buyers (baths, cafes, restaurants, bars).
Crayfish farming has been actively pursued quite recently, from 2021-2021 - with the release of the law on aquaculture and the introduction of sanctions. Crayfish are in demand in our country and abroad: according to analysts, the export of crayfish and shellfish from Russia in 2021 increased by 59%.
Crayfish meat has a specific and very delicate taste. Previously, there was no need to breed crayfish, because you could easily catch in the nearest river. Unfortunately, environmental conditions have reduced their population, and it is now quite difficult to find crayfish.
Breeding crayfish is a promising business, because the prices for live crayfish can exceed 1000 rubles per kilogram. Another important plus is that you can start this business with minimal investment. True, you will have to wait a long time for the first profit. Let us examine all the nuances of growing crayfish as a business.
How to breed crayfish Business specifics
Before you start breeding crayfish, there are a few important things to know:
First: the biggest costs will be in the first phase. Equipment, preparation of the habitat of individuals, their purchase. In the future, a modest investment in feed and equipment operating costs will be required.
Second: the first profit will be in about two years. When selling any living creature, it must first be raised, and in the case of crayfish, this is a long process.
Third: this business is seasonal and does not make a profit all year long, but only from May to October, when crustaceans breed. In winter they sleep, and even if comfortable living conditions are created for them during this period, their growth slows down.
Crayfish Species and Conditions
There are several types of crayfish to breed. The main types are presented in the table.
Name Average length of an adult Average weight of an adult Specific features of an individual Geographic habitat Long-toed (narrow-toed) 5 cm 50 g Good fertility (one female is capable of carrying 400-450 eggs) Moscow region, Astrakhan region, basin of the upper and middle Volga Shirokopaly (noble) 4 cm 40-50 g Powerful paws, meat yield 30%, growing slowly Baltic, Velikaya Luga, Northern Europe, upper Volga Kuban 7-9 cm 50-60 g Rapid growth. They can reproduce after 2 years of life. he, Kuban, Azov region Australian Red-claw 8-10 cm 7 months of life 90 g 1.5 years 150-200 g Grows fast, unpretentious to food, meat yield up to 40% Tropical species Marble 13-15 cm 100-120 g Reproduction form - parthenogenesis (no sex differences) , rare species - decorative, predatory natureCentral Europe, Germany, USA, Japan
The choice of breed depends on the planned technology. Usually, long-toed crayfish are bred in ponds - this requires minimal costs.
Crayfish are considered a delicacy product that is widespread in the Russian Federation. It is most popular in the southern part of the country, since these arthropods live in warmer waters. But with the deterioration of the ecological situation, crustaceans have become much less common in their natural habitat. However, the demand for them remains at the same level, and the business idea for breeding crayfish is now relevant. Entrepreneurship in this area is likely to be profitable.
To open an organization based on a business plan for breeding crayfish, you first need to go through the registration procedure. Activity code - OKVED 01.1 (breeding of domestic animals). If there are no plans to transfer products to wholesale buyers, then choose code 52.3 (retail trade in crustaceans). The business of growing and selling crayfish is built depending on the location of the farm (in ponds or aquariums).
Body of water
The pond is arranged next to the river. The best solution would be to breed crayfish for business in oily or lean soil in which the pond settles. Clay particles should be contained in the soil in an amount of 40%. At high humidity, the bottom will be dense and viscous. Waterproofing materials are laid in the bed of the reservoir, heavy and medium loams are suitable. Such materials last up to 25 years.
To make it profitable to breed crayfish according to a business plan, drainage ponds are also being erected. They have water level control. In order to retrieve the animals, the pond can be easily drained. A tubular drain made of iron, cast iron, and asbestos cement is placed in the dam. The drain contains a lounger with a shutter. The reservoir will cost 70,000 rubles.
When starting a business with a crayfish farm, remember that you will need several communicating ponds with a total area of 1000 m 2. Water supply in them is provided by water sources. Wintering reservoirs are placed in close proximity to the water supply. This leads to a reduction in the waterfall chute. Caring for him is difficult in the cold season. If it is long, then the water will be cold, and this is bad conditions for animals.
The growing reservoir is placed near the mother. This allows you to shorten the transplant time. In cases where the territory of the farm is small, then one pond is also arranged. However, they always provide for separate pools in order to separate the young of the year.
It is imperative that the pond bed is waterproofed. Clay mixed with pebbles is laid out in it. The bottom has a shape that provides a decrease in the area of water release. A film is put on it, and then poured with bitumen. Then cement is applied, mixed with sand in a 3: 1 ratio. A metal mesh is placed on the stock bottom. The banks are always steep, they make a boar around the reservoir. This avoids contamination of the pond. Trees are also planted along the banks to create shadows over the pond. The reservoir should be no more than 30-40 cm deep. / P>
Often they use RAS in accordance with the business plan for breeding crayfish. These are closed water supply installations. They are more profitable to use than standard pools.
Crayfish farming as a business is not always a large-scale production. It can be organized at home.
With the right content and observance of crayfish cultivation standards, the business will quickly pay off.
Due to small capital investments, which will only decrease with development, the turnover may increase several times.
After 5-6 years, it is possible to reach a new level - a self-reproducing herd of crayfish. In this case, costs will decrease and production volumes will increase.
In addition, the technology of breeding crayfish allows them to be kept with herbivorous fish, as they get along well. This provides a new promising direction for growth and development.
Selecting a farm type
Crayfish can be grown in an artificial environment and water bodies.
There is no need for running water for their life, the main thing is to saturate the space with oxygen, keep it clean and make it possible to make holes. For this, the bottom should be made of clay mounds and stones.
The business of selling live and boiled crayfish is far from simple. Firstly, the product itself has a certain specificity - from catching crayfish and the associated restrictions and conditions and ending with the transportation of finished products to the client. Secondly, such a business is not suitable for all regions of our country (which is due to objective reasons - the presence of reservoirs suitable for crayfish habitat). Nevertheless, this direction is considered promising and profitable. The domestic crayfish market has been actively developing over the past few years. Artificial reproduction of crayfish is gaining more and more popularity. And the trade in these products is gradually becoming civilized. Now crayfish can be bought not only on highways or in bazaars. Manufacturers began to supply their products in the form of cooked-frozen raw materials or canned products to chain stores. Separate establishments are also opened that specialize in the sale of this particular product. Every year the volume of industrial catch of crayfish is growing steadily, however, as well as the number of players on the market.
Crayfish catch: important nuances
The main obstacles hindering the development of the "cancer business" are poaching, which inevitably leads to a reduction in the crayfish population, and ... government quotas. As you know, crayfish live in freshwater reservoirs. Cancer extraction is legally limited in time. In federal water bodies, official fishing takes place in general for three months: from July 15 to August 15 and from September 15 to November 30. The catch of crayfish ends with the appearance of the first ice, when broad-fingered ones hide in burrows for wintering. In the spring and early summer, crayfish molt and begin to spawn, therefore, crayfish catching is prohibited during this period. With a limited "cancerous" season, enterprises still need to get a permit for catching. Therefore, most often the capture begins at the end of July or even later, if the molting of crayfish is delayed. So in practice, the season is even shorter.
The procedure for catching crayfish is determined by the Fishing Rules - this is a document that establishes the conditions for fishing for amateurs and their industrial production. Usually these rules are developed in the form of general (model) provisions for the whole country. And then, on their basis, each region issues its own Rules (for example, the Fishing Rules for the Azov-Black Sea fishery basin), in which some general positions are clarified: the places of permitted fishing are specified, the exact terms of fishing prohibitions are established, restrictions on the amount of catch fish, tackle, etc. Compliance with the Rules of commercial fishing or amateur, sports is aimed at the rational use of fish stock in water bodies, creating conditions for their trouble-free reproduction. Any deviation from them is considered a violation, poaching and is punishable by law. The rules even regulate the size of the crayfish fishing gear. So, for example, the size of the cells of the rakolovka network should be at least 22 mm, and its diameter should be no more than 80 cm. For persons engaged in industrial fishing, the number of crayfish is not limited, but amateurs have to be content with a maximum of three.
The issue of quotas deserves special attention. The fact is that in order to preserve the crayfish population, the allowable catch rate is calculated every year for each region. On the basis of this norm, quotas are allocated. Over the past few years, quotas have been constantly increasing, which experts attribute to favorable conditions for population growth. The threat to the crayfish population arose in the 70s of the last century, when the crayfish plague, a mycotic disease, passed through the territory of Europe and Russia. Most of the crustacean population died out at that time. Only in the last ten years has their population begun to recover. This is facilitated by the purification of reservoirs and a greater amount of organic feed in the reservoirs. Poaching catches also negatively affect the crustacean population. Although quotas are regularly raised, they are clearly not enough to meet the existing demand. For example, the total quota for the Rostov region was only 20 tons a few years ago. And this despite the fact that the volume of consumption of crayfish in only one central city of the region - Rostov-on-Don, then amounted to 200 tons of crayfish per year!
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Several structures are engaged in issues of nature management and environmental protection, which includes illegal catch of crayfish. These are the administration of Rosprirodnadzor, Rosrybolovstvo, the Ministry of Natural Resources, the Department of Hunting and Fishing and others. The spheres of their activity are delimited. For example, the department deals with the organization and regulation of fishing, distributes quotas for the extraction of aquatic biological resources, and carries out protection on inland water bodies. The powers for state control and supervision over the observance of federal legislation in the field of fishing and conservation of aquatic biological resources in the region are vested in the territorial departments of the Federal Agency for Fishery.
Commercial catches vary by region and year. Over the past few years, it has been several tens of tons. Violation of the rules for catching crayfish, according to the Administrative Code, is punishable by fines. The minimum fine for violation of the Fishing Rules is 2021 rubles. Also, poachers caught red-handed will have to compensate for the damage. The compensation is 42 rubles per individual, regardless of its size. For each female with caviar, the fine is doubled. If the cancer was released back into the body of water alive with a minimum of damage, no damage is incurred.
The catch rate for crayfish is no more than thirty pieces per person per day (this does not apply to cases of catching crayfish on an industrial scale with a license). Moreover, the permissible length of individuals is at least nine centimeters. The length of the body is taken into account from the end of the tail plates to the line that connects the middle of the eyes.