Growing mushrooms as a business - premises, equipment, sales, business plan
The business, which is based on growing mushrooms at home, is quite popular today. And there are a number of fairly simple explanations for this.
Below, we will tell you how to properly grow mushrooms at home and how much you can earn from it.
Benefits of growing mushrooms
What are the best mushrooms to grow
Before you start growing mushrooms, you should decide what kind of mushrooms you will be working on.
The cultivation of these mushrooms is considered the most cost-effective. They have a high nutritional value and are very unpretentious.
It is considered one of the most widespread, recognizable and purchased types. Growing it is a little more difficult than oyster mushroom, but its high popularity and demand neutralize these difficulties.
This is not only delicious, but also healing type of mushroom. It belongs to one of the most expensive, but in order to grow a mushroom with healing properties, mycelium must be bought in eastern countries.
Perhaps no other type of agricultural business is as cultivated on the Internet as growing mushrooms (oyster mushrooms, champignons and even white mushrooms) at home. PPC banners have probably popped up for almost all users.
The theoretical rationale for this business idea, in general, is logical: the business is potentially not labor-intensive, profitable and capable of demonstrating attractive profitability. However, in practice, growing mushrooms as a business shows very different results.
Success here requires at least very strict adherence to technology, which is extremely difficult to enforce. Let's try, within the framework of this material, to draw up a business plan and assess the true prospects of this entrepreneurial activity.
Features of mushroom production
It's worth starting by reading reviews on the Internet. And we are talking not only about the subjective opinions of entrepreneurs (including the unlucky ones) from this area, but also about the opinions of qualified doctors. And here's what you need to learn from all this information.
Under no circumstances is it allowed to grow mushrooms in the basement of the house, on the balcony, on the shelves in the kitchen and in any other home premises. Mushrooms reproduce by spores that take root (.) On the human body (especially when it comes to such a mushroom as oyster mushroom). Therefore, mushroom farms should not coexist with humans, moreover, it is unacceptable to plant such agricultural enterprises even in the basements of residential buildings.
Basements, as well as apartments, have common vertical ventilation shafts, through which spores will efficiently and quickly spread throughout the living quarters. Your mushroom farm can quickly turn into a formidable biological weapon.
Further, mushrooms are extremely capricious to the conditions of their growth, or rather to the microclimate. It is extremely important for them that the indicators of humidity, temperature and carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere are in a narrow, maximum permissible range. In the event of deviations, the mycelium stops growing, and when microclimatic conditions return to normal, its growth does not resume. As a result, on the one hand, the room needs to be continuously ventilated forcibly, and on the other hand, to constantly maintain a positive temperature (usually with the help of lamps). These are opposite requirements.
However, it would be unfair not to mention the beneficial features of mushroom production:
- for a two-month cycle, 1 bag of substrate (approximately 0.25 m²) is capable of producing up to 4-5 kg of mushrooms. That is, up to 100-120 kg per year from 1 m² can be collected;
- if any agricultural crops grow "in 1 layer", then mushrooms can be grown on racks in 3-4 tiers. The productivity of 1 m² of the premises turns out to be impressive: from a modest 15 m² of 4-level shelving, with proper care for a year, it will be possible to harvest 6-7 tons of mushrooms;
- growing mushrooms does not require significant labor costs, unlike growing vegetables in a greenhouse , eg.
It seems reasonable to briefly highlight the peculiarities of growing several types of mushrooms separately.
It was champignons (not porcini mushrooms or oyster mushrooms) that became the type of mushrooms that began to be grown in artificial conditions and on a production scale in the first place. In many ways, this also influenced the peculiarities of world cuisine - whole sections of dishes appeared, created from these mushrooms or with their addition.
Champignons have become very popular in different countries of the world, are quite recognizable among consumers, and therefore are still in deserved demand. As a result, growing mushrooms as a business is an economically very attractive production, the organization of which is available, including for small businesses.
A little earlier, we considered the production of champignons in such a context (that is, in the garage or even in the basement of a country house - on an area of 15 m²). However, within the framework of this article, I would like to look at this business idea on a larger scale. That is, not as a matter of purely for one performer, but as a technology, thanks to which you can earn millions and move according to your capabilities to a new investment level.
Immediately, we note that although the project will still be designed for implementation within the suburban area (or, more precisely, on an area of 100 m2), it will require many times more initial investment, and therefore our business the plan will become "heavier" and more complex.
The benefits of growing mushrooms as a business
So, this project is larger than the one that was considered initially. That is, it also implies a multiple increase in production volumes. Why does such an increase - scaling - seem reasonable to produce with mushrooms, and not, for example, with oyster mushrooms? Let's figure it out.
It's all about the relative simplicity of this mushroom. Champignons are sometimes called dung mushrooms, and all because their thickets, under favorable conditions, are formed next to the corresponding storage facilities near the cowsheds or stables. The composition of the substrate for their production, of course, includes other ingredients, however, 90% of the weight falls on manure. In other words, the foundation for a mushroom farm - a manure-based substrate - is a very common and potentially inexpensive factor of production. However, it would be fair to list all the ingredients and the proportions of their introduction (by weight):
- manure (horse or cow, fresh) - 95%;
- urea - 0.2%;
- chopped straw - 2 , 4%;
- superphosphate - 0.2%;
- ammonium sulfate - 0.4%;
- chalk - 0.4%; li >
- gypsum - 1.4%.
Growing conditions and required equipment and areas
Mushrooms are neither fish, nor meat, nor plant. A completely separate category of the living natural world, which is used for food by most of the peoples of the world. A bright, rich mushroom taste and aroma, which cannot be confused with any product, is used to prepare hundreds of names of first and second courses. The unique vegetable "meat" got a new round of popularity thanks to the appearance in retail chains of a large assortment of forest products. Growing mushrooms for sale has become a lucrative, highly profitable business. How to make money on the culinary preferences of the population will be discussed in this article.
Types of mushrooms
Farmer growing of mushrooms became widespread in the late 90s of the last century.
Oyster mushrooms and champignons are the most popular varieties that can be bought on all counters in markets and supermarkets. A lot of competition forced manufacturers to expand their assortment. Today, virtually any mushroom can be grown, including elite and rare varieties. The only exceptions are truffles, the value of which lies in "wildness". But even without them, there are enough cost-effective options:
- Champignons are the most expensive "cultivated" mushrooms, therefore they are most attractive for business. Require the creation of specific conditions - compost, substrate, sterile mycelium, equipment, etc. Investments are appropriate.
- Oyster mushrooms - with due effort, you can organize a business with minimal investment. The harvest from one block reaches 7-8 kg per month, which automatically makes the cultivation of oyster mushrooms a fast payback enterprise.
- Honey mushrooms are unpretentious and easy to grow mushrooms. At home, it is grown in wooden barrels, which are pre-sawed. In industrial production, they are rare, despite the ease of cultivation (free niche).
- Chanterelles - grown on previously prepared, forest soil. The soil is collected in early autumn or early spring. The technology of growing mushrooms in greenhouse conditions has not yet been mastered, as well as industrial production. Suitable for breeding in their own summer cottages for personal purposes or a small seasonal business.
- White mushroom - valuable, nutritious and expensive, but requires special growing conditions. Grows best outdoors, near tree roots. That is, for year-round production, it will be necessary to build a stationary, expensive greenhouse with conditions close to forest conditions. In this regard, the porcini mushroom is rather a seasonal product.
In theory, any mushroom can be grown at home. But for a full-fledged, year-round business, the most popular varieties on the market are suitable - oyster mushrooms and champignons.
Therefore, it is better for a novice mushroom grower to turn his attention to popular species that are easy and convenient to work with, in terms of the availability of raw materials, information on growing and the experience of other entrepreneurs.
How to start a mushroom growing business?
Learning information is primary for any type of business. There are a lot of sites on the Internet where you can find virtually all the answers to your inquiry about mushroom cultivation. But experienced entrepreneurs recommend looking at more specialized resources:
The more extensive the knowledge gained, the higher the likelihood of successful business development.
Purchase of raw materials
Champignons are the most widespread and popular mushrooms. They became widespread due to the possibility of growing them at home and on specialized mushroom farms. They can be grown and eaten all year round.
Champignons are suitable fresh and canned. They are not only nutritious, containing protein, but also a useful product that includes trace elements and vitamins necessary for humans. Distributed in wildlife on many continents.
Let's figure out if it is possible to grow mushrooms at home?
The mushroom growing technology includes the mandatory observance of a number of conditions.
- Room with certain conditions.
- Planting material - mycelium.
- Preparing the soil.
- Correct cultivation technique.
Stage one - selection of a room suitable for growing mushrooms
The required temperature regime in the room is 15-25 ° С. For the germination of the mycelium, it is 22-25 degrees, and during the fruiting period of the mushrooms, the air temperature should be 15-17 degrees. At a temperature of 33 degrees, the mycelium dies, and when the temperature drops to 3 degrees, growth stops. Air humidity 70% with mycelium growth, for fruiting, air humidity 70-85% is required. The carbon dioxide released during mushroom cultivation provokes excessive stretching of the mushroom leg. Therefore, good ventilation is essential.
Thermometer and hygrometer will help you control the indoor climate. Humidity is increased by spraying from a spray bottle, and reduced by ventilation. Mushrooms develop without light, so they are grown in dark basements, sheds, garages, cellars, etc. The ideal premises are underground cellars and basements in which there is no temperature fluctuation. Therefore, if you still have a garage with a vegetable pit or a pit for car repairs idle, then you can use it to grow mushrooms.
With a height of 2 m, it is convenient to arrange 2-3 tiers of shelving with a width of 60-70 cm.Leave 70-80 cm from the ceiling to the upper tier, 40 cm between tiers.