Methodology for drawing up a business plan and calculating key indicators
Each company, in the course of its activities, must clearly understand the needs for all types of resources, and also be able to accurately calculate the amount of funds required to implement their business ideas. In a market economy, you must be able to plan, regularly analyze the internal and external environment, assess your own prospects and opportunities. For clarity, consider a sample business plan with calculations. Also at the very end of the article, you can download a detailed business plan for the grocery store.
Web studio business plan - sample with calculations
Sample Business Plan
The article presents a sample business plan with calculations for opening a website development company. Today, many companies decide to open their offices on the Internet. As a consequence, it becomes necessary to create an official website.
Business plan is an official document that will subsequently be presented to potential investors and partners. Therefore, when developing it, you should adhere to certain principles.
Sections of the business plan
Sample content of the main sections of a business plan
- summary (brief description of the project and key financial indicators),
- project description,
- enterprise capability analysis,
- production plan,
- marketing plan,
- financial plan,
- risk analysis,
- links to sources.
The projected company is created for the purpose of developing websites and their subsequent placement on the Internet. The company's product is a website designed in accordance with the client's requests, the chosen concept and functionality. The average price of a website (according to the arithmetic mean) will be 64 thousand rubles.
It is the financial plan in the business plan that makes it possible to assess the feasibility of creating a business. So, if there is a positive balance, there are prospects for development in the market, it makes sense to attract credit funds or investments for the implementation of the project.
Financial plans of a modern enterprise
Most companies in Russia use 3 types of financial plans.
- Short-term. They are compiled for a maximum of a year. Their task is to enable the company to remain stable and solvent. In essence, they reflect income and expenses in the amounts that allow each unit to perform its functions.
- Medium-term. Drawn up for up to 5 years. At this stage, specific activities are planned to facilitate the implementation of the strategy.
- Long-term. Compiled for 5 years or more to meet global financial or performance targets.
In practice, 3 levels of financial planning can be identified in a company.
It is worth noting that the planning idea is simple and logical, but most SMEs, unfortunately, lack planning. This raises a lot of problems. It is not possible to achieve the desired income, since there is an understanding of what numbers I would like to reach, but there is no idea of how to do this. Yes, and the actions of different departments are not coordinated or there is a staff turnover, since employees cannot fulfill their plans, etc.
Approaches to drafting a financial plan in a business plan
The document can be drawn up in different forms. Let's consider each of them.
The forecasting period may cover a period of up to 3-5 years. The task of forecasting is to show the prospects for the development of the company and the profit that it can receive in the coming period. The forecast is displayed in the form of a table, where the following indicators are displayed:
- net sales are money received from the sale of goods, taking into account discounts and excluding returned products (due to defects, etc.); planning begins with the calculation of this indicator for all types of products that are manufactured by the enterprise;
- the cost of manufactured and sold products for a certain period;
- gross profit; to calculate the indicator, cost is subtracted from the net sales volume;
- operating expenses are the amount that includes the costs of developing a new type of product and its implementation, marketing research, etc.;
- expenses for payment of interest on loans;
- balance sheet profit (or total) - income before taxes;
- tax payments;
- net profit; is calculated by deducting tax expenses from the balance sheet profit.
The most important indicators for analysis are: net sales, cost and net profit. Interestingly, in case of unforeseen circumstances, optimistic, pessimistic and realistic forecasts are developed.
Displays the company's turnover balance for a specific period. In this case, income and expense are taken into account by points (for operating costs, for raw materials, for salaries, etc.).
The design differs from the forecast of financial results in that it reflects the actual state of affairs, rather than the forecast. At the same time, in the case of it, the following difficulties arise: if it is still possible to calculate the indicators on a monthly and quarterly basis, then it is very difficult to do this for a year.
Business plan for a grocery store. Based on the findings of marketers, the most profitable investment is the grocery store. With minimal risks and costs that arise when opening, you can get a good income.
Let's take a look at some of the basics that come in handy when you're writing your own grocery business plan. Open a new store with an area of one hundred square meters. (the territory of the shopping area will be 70 sq.) can be placed in a residential area of the city. The store is open from 08:00 to 21:00, without breaks and days off.
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This grocery store is designed for approximately 500 visitors per day. Visitors with average income are considered to be able to make a purchase for at least 2 hundred rubles.
Selecting a suitable object
A small store can be located on an area of one hundred square meters. meters, while, as mentioned above, 70 sq. meters are allocated for trade, and the rest of the area is occupied by auxiliary and warehouse premises.
The rental price is in direct proportion to the location of the object. The average cost can be about 400 thousand rubles, including utility bills, take this into account when drawing up a business plan.
If for some reason you plan to renovate the premises, then it makes sense to agree on this issue with the landlord in advance and include the cost of redevelopment in the future payment.
Renovation of the premises may be necessary in such cases:
- Bringing the sales area to the accepted standards of SES;
- Cosmetic repairs in order to increase customer activity.
The layout of the shop windows is determined by the trading method.
When developing a business plan for a grocery store specializing in self-service, it must be remembered that such a business will pay off much faster, in contrast to the same retail or trade through the counter.
Business planning is an essential part of a company's strategic planning. This article will describe in detail the methods of drawing up business plans, as well as the calculation of the main financial indicators and the formulas necessary for this.
What is a business plan?
A business plan is a document that an entrepreneur needs for financial activities. The purpose of this document may be:
- obtaining a loan from a bank or other credit institution;
- receiving investments from a sponsor, as well as attracting private investment;
- for their own needs - for example, to draw up a long-term, short-term or medium-term strategy for the development of an organization;
- for tax authorities.
Important: The business plan should be as flexible as possible. This is necessary so that you can make changes and edits to it during use.
The business plan has the following sections:
- summary of the compiler, legal characteristics of the organization (or a summary section "About us"). The resume should briefly indicate the essence of the project;
- a detailed description of the industry and your product (everything about the market and about your products and services);
- a comprehensive marketing research, including industry segmentation sales and consumers, survey of at least 10 respondents, analysis of supply and demand in this market segment;
- available assets (cash, securities and other financial resources);
- analysis risks;
- a financial plan that includes detailed financial forecasting;
- a production plan (what, how much and how you intend to produce);
- an organizational plan, which also must include legal support;
- methods of returning funds to the credit institution;
- a conclusion, which summarizes the results and indicates the conclusions.
The methodology for developing a business plan for an enterprise has certain specifics, therefore, the preparation of this document will be described step by step.
By the way, our consulting company is plan-pro. u specializes in drawing up business plans. To order a ready-made document, go to the "Contacts" section and contact our managers via e-mail and phone number. Our business plan for the organization will exactly meet all the requirements of the credit institution and your wishes. It will be guaranteed on time.
Business plan methodology
Comparative characteristics of the main methods of drawing up a business plan showed that in order to correctly draw up a document, it is necessary to adhere to the following simple procedure. Below will be provided an extract from different methods of developing documents of this type:
- first figure out what you need this business planning for. To attract investment? For taking out a loan? For your own use? Having determined the purpose of writing a business plan, you can proceed to the next point;
- decide how you will draw up the document - yourself or order from a competent company? A business plan is a difficult document to create and a lot depends on it. Therefore, it may be wise to save time and nerves and order a ready-made business plan on our plan-pro website. u. Our consulting firm has long been specialized in drawing up business plans;
- if you decide to draw up it yourself, do market research; take into account the possible difficulties that you may face in the market, try to calculate the likely actions of competitors and analyze their activities;
- carefully consider the possibility of entering a large market, especially if you are writing this document not for yourself, but to attract funding ;
- if a business plan is needed to obtain a loan or private investment, do not forget to describe in detail how you will return the borrowed money;
- do not forget that the business plan must be understandable and readable not only to you and your accountant, but to both parties;
- indicate in the financial plan the formulas that you used to calculate the main financial indicators. Never write just numbers - be sure to clarify where they came from;
- in order to bring a project to shine, look at it through the eyes of an investor or a banking organization. What might seem incomprehensible or wrong to them? Fix this even if the business plan is for your own needs.
The structure of the business plan is flexible enough, which means that the paragraphs of the document may change slightly depending on the purpose of the authors.
The economic calculation of a business plan addresses the following issues:
- Financial support for the subsequent activities of the organization, enterprise, company, depending on the specifics of the work performed, activities in the market.
- Consideration of organizational issues, as well as the most effective connection to the activities of the organization of the available material means and resources.
The calculation of the business plan is carried out on the basis of the received preliminary assessment of the existing financial information that is current at the current time. Similarly, the forecast of the subsequent sale of services and goods is carried out in the expected periods of the company's development.
How the business plan is prepared and executed
The calculation of a business plan within the framework of analytical activities is carried out in the form of valid documents:
- Forecast of already compiled and existing financial results
- Phased design of the movement of material resources
- Enterprise balance sheet, compiled on the basis of existing forecasts
As practice shows, the calculation of the business plan and, in particular, the forecast period is drawn up within at least three, but not more than five years. In order to most clearly demonstrate how this document can be calculated, to determine the ultimate goal, it is proposed to consider the procedure for drawing up such a document for an enterprise working in the field of production and subsequent sale of food products. In the future, the enterprise plans to master a new release of products, therefore, the actual issue is the calculation of a business plan, taking into account the activities and effectiveness of the organized production program.
Specifics of making a forecast of the executed financial results
The ultimate goal of the compiled forecast of financial performance is to directly assess the prospects for the development of the organization, in particular, to obtain correct data on the expected profitability and profitability of the investment made. What is noteworthy is that the investors themselves are primarily interested in the question of the profitability of the organization, the investment of material resources and time in the development of the project. The interest of investors is explained by the fact that they will be able to clearly see what amount of profit can be expected from a specific project, on this basis, there is a need to draw up and calculate a business plan.
Within the framework of the document being prepared, the years (1st, 2nd, and so on) are indicated, which determine the forecast period, starting immediately from the next in relation to the current date of drawing up the project documentation. Such data are called, in particular, the base year, the time indicator is distributed depending on the scale and other indicators of the project.
Working with sales volumes
According to the established procedure for performing business plan calculations, the starting position for the subsequent forecast is planning the expected sales volumes, compiled both in volume and value terms. A similar calculation is carried out directly for all the names of the proposed products, after which the final result will be summed up, entered as data in the final table.