How to write a business plan correctly - examples, presentation detailed instructions for aspiring entrepreneurs

According to the results of a study by the FinExpertiza consulting network, in 2021 the number of closed companies exceeded the number of registered ones by 2 times. As a rule, young companies suffer losses due to incorrect planning, ignorance of risks and real market needs. Drawing up a business plan will help you avoid financial setbacks. This article will describe the structure of the document, step-by-step instructions for completing the sections, and examples from various industries.

From this article you will learn:

What is a business plan and why it is prepared

A business plan is a document that details the process of implementing an idea. It shows how much money is required to organize your own business, and how much profit the project will bring. In essence, a business plan answers the main question: "Is it worth investing in an idea?" Top business ideas 2021, see ???? at the link.

Typically, this document is drawn up by large companies planning to launch a new product. Or entrepreneurs who need to attract investments in the amount of 1 million rubles or more. However, even a small business needs a business plan.

The latter allows you to solve the following tasks:

  • Identify competitive vulnerabilities and create a better value proposition for customers. And in some cases - to identify and timely occupy free niches in the market.
  • Calculate the exact cost of starting a business.
  • Find ways to optimize costs (for example, find other suppliers, reduce staffing).
  • Forecast external and internal risks, develop measures to prevent negative consequences.
  • Objectively evaluate the products and services offered for implementation. Understand if they will be in demand in the market.
  • Find distribution channels. Develop a competent marketing policy and ways to promote products.

Business presentation is a prerequisite for obtaining borrowed funds. Any investor is interested in making his money bring the maximum profitability and return in the foreseeable future. Therefore, strict requirements for content and design are imposed on the business plan of a private entrepreneur.

IMPORTANT. A business plan for aspiring entrepreneurs is an opportunity to descend from heaven to earth. Indicators of initial and fixed costs, financial efficiency speaks about the idea more than the stories of millionaires and abstract reasoning of the authors of motivational literature.

Types of business plans depending on the goals set

Before creating a business plan, you need to clearly define your ultimate goals. Depending on the latter, experts distinguish three types of business presentation.

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Drawing up a business plan may be required in a variety of life situations - defending a diploma, attracting investors, receiving subsidies and grants from the state to start a business. The ability to competently draw up a project with calculations and presentation of an idea is the key to success in any of your endeavors. For those who need an effective plan for starting a small business, a ready-made example, which is given in this article, will help you cope with the task without unnecessary problems and waste of time.

This post will cover the following points:

  • detailed step-by-step instructions on how to draw up a business plan on your own;
  • formulas for the financial part of the plan;
  • a detailed guide to writing a business plan;
  • useful programs that will help you calculate the profitability of the project and the economic efficiency of the investment.
  • at the end of the article you can download sample projects for aspiring entrepreneurs and students. The review presents projects for opening a bakery, grocery store, farm products store, cafe, coffee shop, beauty salon, flower shop, sushi bar and other areas.

Brief content of the article

What is a business plan?

The basis for successful promotion of small and medium-sized businesses is careful planning to best evaluate ideas. In the project, in order to compare risks, costs and revenues, to minimize losses, a calculation is drawn up - a characteristic of a future organization, including a comprehensive assessment of a commercial undertaking.

A business plan is a rationale for the concept of a new business venture, including an assessment of the environment in which it is launched, a comprehensive analysis of the management system and a phased economic program at the stage of project launch. This document fixes the strengths and weaknesses of the future company, shows the profitability, the range of products offered or services provided, the characteristics of management methods and marketing strategies, the assessment of the economic niche and the direction of development.

The key planning task is the formation of a plan of economic and financial activities, concerning both short-term and long-term prospects, based on a comprehensive analysis of the market situation and own resources.

Project types

The main task of the project determines the features of its preparation. Based on this, several types of document are distinguished:

The development of business plans for the ECC "Invest-project" allows you to attract funding and successfully implement an investment project

Since 2021, we have developed more than 1000 business plans for various investment projects for a total amount of over 1.2 trillion. rub. for different customers and industries:

  • private medicine,
  • industrial and civil construction,
  • agriculture,
  • food production,
  • livestock,
  • real estate (commercial, residential, suburban),
  • industrial production,
  • catering,
  • retail trade,
  • fuel and energy complex, etc.

Mandatory questions to the customer of the business plan

What do we necessarily ask every time we are contacted for the development of a business plan?

1. First of all, you need to write something on the title page of your business plan. For example, a business plan for the construction of a general medical center (or an indication of specialization) and in which city. Ideal if the project already has a working title.

2. Sales. How exactly are the products or future services supposed to be sold? Any banker or investor will inevitably ask this question.

3. Next, you need to understand how the customer is oriented in his market, or whether marketing research is required.

4. The next question is the source of funding. This can be a bank loan, own funds or investor funds. This greatly affects the economics of the project.

5. Next comes the production capacity of the project, even if it is a service. We must understand the magnitude of your vision. If this is production, then how many physical units per year. If services - what area is needed. If the IT sector - what is the geographic coverage of the audience.

A business plan is the document from which to start the implementation of your idea. If you do not make a preliminary calculation of expenses and income, do not take into account the demand and the presence of already working competitors, you can waste your budget. In our article you will find a sample business plan with calculations and learn how to prepare it for yourself.

What should be in the business plan

But when the development of a business plan for a small business is needed specifically for investors, guarantors, creditors, then the document must comply with the requirements of the Federal Fund for Small Business Support. You can learn how to draw up a business plan in accordance with these requirements from the recommendations of the Fund, and we will consider a brief structure of the plan here.

The structure of the business plan from the Federal Fund for the Support of Small Business:

If you follow all the recommendations of the Federal Fund for the Support of Small Business, it is quite difficult to draw up your own business plan on your own. But there is another way to calculate the prospects of your project - using the SME Business Navigator.

How to write a business plan yourself

Business Navigator is an information support portal for small and medium-sized businesses. To access all the functionality of the portal, you must be registered as an individual entrepreneur or legal entity.

Using the Business Navigator, you can:

  • Choose a type of business;
  • Develop a business plan;
  • Find out where to get a loan and get a government guarantee to secure it; <
  • Find a business premises;
  • Learn about government support measures;
  • Participate in public procurement.
☑ Averaged statistical data of 5,000 operating small and medium-sized businesses are used to calculate the business plan. Estimated demand for goods and services is calculated based on real consumption data.

So far, the list of settlements for which you can calculate your business plan includes 171 cities of the Russian Federation. We will tell you how to work with the Business Navigator using a specific example.

An example of drawing up a business plan in the service

Business plan with calculations in Excel. Sample filling out a business plan (xlsx template)

Excel template for calculating a business plan with the following sections:

  • Project parameters
  • Sales and direct costs
  • Total costs
  • Taxes and royalties
  • Starting Balance
  • Capital Investments
  • Financing
  • Additional Information
  • Profit and Loss Statement
  • Balance Sheet
  • Cash flow

Business plan with calculations in Excel from young business people Free download xslx

List of templates for preparing the financial part of a business plan for a catering enterprise

Out-of-the-box solutions in Excel for business

Don't have time for routine? Solve tasks in Excel!

Graph of income, expenses, profit

Any individual entrepreneur (IE) or enterprise (LLC, CJSC) maintains accounting and tax accounting in accordance with applicable law. However, accounting and management accounting for income and expenses are not always the same. In order to understand the real ratio of income and expenses of an individual entrepreneur or LLC, as well as the profit of an enterprise, it is necessary to keep a detailed record of real income and expenses.

Calculating the payback point of the project

The payback point of the project is the amount of income from the activities of the enterprise, equal to the costs of conducting this activity. The sums received in excess of the payback point bring profit to the enterprise.

Calculation of the project payback point is necessary when developing a business plan, when starting production or purchasing a new type of product, when starting a new project. To calculate the payback point, it is necessary to determine the main items of income and expenses of the enterprise.

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