How to start a pig breeding business and how to succeed in it; business plan and advice
A pig farm is a good idea for a budding entrepreneur. The initial investment will definitely lead to a high stable income. The success of a project, like any other business, is impossible without a carefully thought out and well-written business plan.
Analysis of the existing market
When drawing up the document, it should be taken into account that the competitiveness of such an enterprise depends on the feed conversion rate and weight gain at fattening, as well as on the number of farrowings per year and on the number of piglets produced by one sow. A number of economic indicators are strongly influenced by the genetics of the animal, the conditions in which it is kept, and the quality of the feed.
With an objective approach to the issue of development prospects in Russia, we can safely say that this industry is the most attractive for investment. At the moment, the state offers a number of favorable conditions that contribute to the development of the economy: quotas for meat, cheap and long-term loans, subsidies, etc.
You can watch the use of technologies and modern equipment in this area in the following video:
Organizing your own business is impossible without suitable premises:
- It's not so easy to build a pigsty from scratch, so a much more profitable option is to rent or purchase a finished premises (for example, left over after the closure of a previous farm).
- Before starting work, the pigsty should be disinfected.
- Keeping animals requires proper heat transfer. The value of this indicator is influenced by such factors as the age of individuals, gender, floor plan and available energy resources.
- A good climatic environment in a pigsty is impossible without an effective ventilation system.
- If finances permit, it is worth buying equipment for removing manure.
- Particular attention should be paid to energy saving indicators: the quality and type of floor, which is part of the heating system of the room, has the greatest influence on them.
- Providing piglets with good housing conditions will definitely have a positive effect on their future reproductive performance. That is why many practicing farmers recommend installing slatted floors in pigsties: they greatly facilitate the work of employees, ensure efficient manure removal, and also lead to tremendous energy savings. They also protect animals from colds and intestinal diseases, which in turn reduces the cost of purchasing veterinary drugs.
You should also take good care of the arrangement of the premises:
- The equipment must include a drinker installed near the trough. Only in this case will the pig itself be able to control the consistency of the food consumed. There are 2 types of drinkers: teat and cup. Based on the material, PVC, stainless steel or brass are most often used.
- Optimum humidity, sufficient air mobility and a suitable temperature are all very important factors in the growing process. The ventilation system can be organized in several ways: through the roof or using supply and exhaust shafts.
- An equally important role is given to equipment for manure removal. The best is the self-alloy system - it does not create drafts in the room and does not require additional flushing with water. In addition, the cost of this equipment is low, the farmer will be able to mount it independently, and the system will serve reliably and for a long time.
- The next type of equipment is a feeder. It can be equipped with various attachments and produce both dry feeding and liquid feeding of animals. The feed can be delivered in dosage or continuously. The principle is extremely simple: food enters the troughs by means of a special separating device from a bunker located outside the premises. If necessary, dosing is provided by a graduated opening device. Sows with piglets require a special approach. We are not talking about special equipment, it is enough to equip the simplest feeders. The main thing is that the feed arrives after certain time intervals.
Feeding and raising pigs requires the purchase of the following types of feed:
- concentrated (barley, bran, rice, corn kernels, etc.);
- green (alfalfa, clover, nettle);
- juicy (potatoes, carrots);
- of animal origin;
Further, the emphasis is on pig breeding as a business. It makes no sense to consider the specificity of raising animals in the amount of 1 - 2 heads in this context. Firstly, a small "shed" is quite suitable for this. Secondly, everything that a pig gives a person (meat, lard), when breeding it on such a meager scale, goes mainly to the home table. And if it is for sale, then only the surplus, in small quantities. In this case, talking about some kind of business is hardly appropriate, given the timing of growing an individual to slaughter weight.
Thirdly, experts draw attention to the fact that breeding pigs in small numbers is a low-profit business, and often unprofitable. Rationale - small revenue with significant cash investments.
Key points of the business plan
It is necessary to start with its preparation. Only on the basis of an analysis of the estimated costs, taking into account their capabilities (in terms of money, time and a number of other factors) can one understand whether it is worth doing such a business as raising pigs at all. Further - only the main aspects. Each item requires more detailed elaboration, taking into account local specifics.
Plot of land
For the convenience of calculations, we will determine what area is needed for breeding 10 pigs (in m²). By the way, this is the minimum recommended number of goals for starting a serious business.
- Pigsty. For animals only, at least 5 per animal. Plus - a small compartment (room) for storing inventory, a vestibule, passages between cells, and the like. In total, at least 35 - 40 are recruited. Alternatively, separate buildings - the pigsty itself and the barn. But in this case, the number of required "squares" of land will only increase.
- Walking area. For a dozen pigs, an area of about 100 is needed (10 m2 per adult).
Considerations when planning
Keeping several pigs in a common compartment is justified if the number of pigs is at least 25. If the number is smaller, it is advisable to set aside a separate pen for each individual.
Number of goals
Experienced pig breeders advise starting with a dozen (2 - 3 hogs for 7 pigs). Enough to organize proper maintenance and care. Gradually, gaining personal experience, you can increase the livestock. There is one more argument in favor of the "at the start" limitation.
In the process of breeding, it will become clearer what should be done - either just meat production, or raising pedigree piglets for sale. Alternatively, both. In this case, what to focus on? Logic suggests that it is impractical to purchase several dozen piglets at once, as well as to build a huge pigsty.
Reviews of the pig farm business plan ()
Thank you very much for your work and help. I am very grateful to you.
The main thing about the business plan of the pig farm in the year
Features of creating a pig farm
The pig business is gaining more and more attention from entrepreneurs. Livestock is starting to revive, driven by the growing profitability of this type of business. It is difficult to imagine the diet of an adult without fresh meat, and locally produced steamed pork is invariably in steady demand among the population.
Such a business as pig breeding is difficult to pull financially. Only the initial budgeting of the pig farm - the construction of premises for the pigsty, the purchase of equipment, the purchase of breeding animals, feed for them - will amount to at least 100 thousand dollars. The payback period for the pork business is 3-4 years, earlier one could not hope for a net profit.
In order to recoup the investment in the optimal time frame, you should start with a herd of at least 300 heads. You can, of course, organize a farm for 100 heads, but it will be more difficult to recoup the initial investment in this case. Half of the herd should be sows, it will be enough for them to leave 10 breeding boars, and the rest of the livestock should be kept for fattening and sale for meat. The pig business involves a careful study of the pedigree of breeding animals - genetic problems, the presence of breeding marriage can jeopardize your entire business.
The pig business will only be profitable if you can raise healthy livestock. What can destroy a breeding herd? First, the inferior offspring. Before you open a pig farm, decide where you will buy breeding animals. Moreover, it is advisable to acquire boars and sows from different farms in order to avoid related mating. The second most important factor influencing the development of such a business as pig breeding is considered to be high-quality feed. Piglets love to eat, but piglets, powerful boars, and pregnant sows all need an individually compiled diet.
The condition of the premises in which you plan to breed pigs is also important. At first, you can open a pig farm in a rented building, rather than build a new building. When deciding to rent a pigsty, pay attention to whether it meets the requirements for keeping animals. If necessary, repair it, disinfect it, destroy rodents that carry dangerous diseases.
Organization of a pig farm provides for the purchase of high-quality equipment - drinkers, conveyors, cleaning devices. Pig farm equipment does not require too much investment, so you shouldn't save on it either. Be sure to equip separate “rooms” for sows that are about to farrow. In the delivery room, it is important to maintain a stable temperature and avoid drafts.
When deciding to start pig farming as a business, don't think it will be easy. Although, indeed, pig breeding is simpler than cattle and small ruminants, the yield is higher. However, it has pitfalls and nuances that must be taken into account. This industry is distinguished by large investments at the initial stage. A good business plan will have to take into account everything: premises, feed, veterinary services, number of employees, documents and taxes.
Why pigs are the best option
So, if you are considering the pig industry as a business, where to start and how to succeed, we will tell you in detail.
Raising pigs for meat is not without reason considered one of the most profitable forms of animal husbandry. There is always a demand for any parts of pork carcasses, and their prices are stable and quite high.
The productivity of piglets is not tied to the season, so you can receive income from them all the time. By correctly drawing up a business plan, pig breeding can be made very profitable. Let's consider the benefits of this activity.
First, pigs use almost the entire carcass. The slaughter yield is up to 95%, but even if yours is lower - 75-80% - this is still more than when breeding cattle or sheep.
Secondly, pigs are fertile. They give birth to 10-12 piglets at a time. A healthy sow can produce offspring 2 or even 3 times a year. This is also incomparable with other popular farm animals, which produce a few heads of young animals a year at best.
Third, pigs are early maturing. They grow rapidly and gain weight. In just a week, a newborn piglet almost doubles its weight. After 6-7 months, it will already weigh 100 kg - the value with which the animal is considered mature in economic terms. In terms of development intensity, pigs are also ahead of sheep and cows.
Things to think about when starting your own business
It is not necessary to immediately open a large pig breeding complex for several hundred or thousands of pigs. You can start with a mini pig farm. But in any case, your business will need:
- rent premises, land for a pig farm (if you don't have your own);
- hire staff;
- buy feed;
- buy pigs;
- buy household equipment, equipment, stationery, etc.;
- find ways to sell pig products.
Pigs have a number of biological characteristics that make them a profitable business to breed. In general terms, we will consider what issues will need to be resolved to organize your pig farm.
The farming business is considered one of the most relevant and promising in our country. The farming business offers a wide range of opportunities, which include animal husbandry, beekeeping, crop production and other areas. In addition, its profitability can be significantly increased by switching to practically waste-free production (first of all, this concerns livestock and crop production). For example, when raising animals for meat, depending on their type, you can also sell milk and dairy products, meat products, wool, skins, manure for fertilization, etc.
Competition in the agricultural sector is still relatively low. Entrepreneurs and investors are confused by the need for long-term investments, bureaucratic obstacles, problems with implementation ... However, as the experience of many successful manufacturers shows, all these investments pay off quickly with competent management of the economy. It is not a problem to pick up and acquire land: there are still enough empty farms in Russian villages and villages. The cost of land starts from 60 thousand rubles per hectare, but, of course, the exact amount will depend on the region, location and area of the site.
What is the most profitable agricultural business? Pig breeding is among the first in terms of profitability.
The benefits of pig farming as a business:
- Pigs gain weight faster than other farm animals raised for meat.
- Compared to cattle, growth in pigs is 10-12 times better. If the farmer does not save on feed and chooses the right ration, then by six months the young growth reaches 100 kg and can be slaughtered.
- Pigs are famous for their fertility (pigs are in second place after poultry in terms of the duration of the breeding cycle), relative unpretentiousness and resistance to various diseases.
Types of pig farms
There are three main types of pig farms:
Large industrial-type complexes designed for large herds of 12 thousand heads or more;
Large farms and agricultural enterprises that keep herds from 100 to 12 thousand heads;
Personal subsidiary and small farms with up to 100 animals.
In this article, we will look at the procedure for drawing up a business plan for small and medium-sized farms. A long-term business plan for a pig farm is essential anyway. Moreover, you cannot do without it if you plan to take loans, credits, take part in government programs to support domestic producers. It allows you to determine in advance the required amount of land for arranging a pig farm, plan construction costs, assess the demand and volumes of future production, and calculate the main economic indicators of your business.
Pig Business Case Study