What is a financial plan for a business project

When there is significant experience in business planning, there is a strong feeling of a special professional orientation of the document - the business plan of the project. Marketing and technical and technological innovation play a guiding role in this process, but, undoubtedly, the financial section of the business plan is of key, central, cross-cutting importance. And the whole process of planning a new project or a whole line of activity is literally permeated with this aspect. In this article, we will talk about the financial plan as a major block of the business plan.

Approaches of different methods

Immediately I want to “stake out” the universal context of business planning from the point of view that the type of focus of the project plan does not really matter. Indeed, whether an entrepreneur forms a business "from scratch" or a company is organized as a continuous series of large projects with a product or regional focus. The approach is similar in both cases. But the existing business has more chances to create a successful model due to the more likely presence of The Best Practice. But again, it depends on how you look at it.

Nordstrem's funky business is already here, the "black swans" of Nassim Taleb are "sailing" more and more often. The life cycle of products and business ideas is getting shorter. You don't have to go far, take, for example, the restaurant business or the business of manufacturing gadgets. Everything is very short-lived. Is the role of business plans growing in such conditions? Yes and no. Confidence in market and technology forecasts in projects is increasingly devalued. And the need for dynamic multivariate financial modeling is growing.

It should be clearly understood that the business plan of the project is a means of persuading the investor or lender with financial and analytical arguments, no matter what incarnation he is. An interested person can be the owner of a design company, a strategic investor, a government representative, managing budgetary funds. Sometimes the counterparty acts as a collective body, for example, the credit committee of a credit institution. The purpose of the financial part of the plan is to have an effective persuasive influence on the object of communications on two theses:

  • financial calculation and investment analysis performed professionally;
  • calculation options take into account the main risks of the project.

Professionalism usually manifests itself in taking into account all industry, corporate, accounting, fiscal and other nuances of the project, as well as in following the norms of the applied methodology. The business planning methodology is usually imposed by the person with the strongest bargaining power, to whom the project planner has approached in the hope of obtaining support or approval for the project. Variants of the composition of the main document used in different methods, we have considered in an article on the meaning of the structure of a business plan. They all place the financial part of the plan at the center.

Using the comparison table above, it can be concluded that the EBRD's business plan methodology model is the most detailed financial planning. This is quite natural, since a significant part of the justification is occupied by the issue of the security of the credit resources planned in the project. The numbers in brackets denote the ordinal numbers of the sequence of sections and subsections of the document. It is worth noting that in almost all recommendations, the calculation of the project's financial plan is supplemented by an analysis of the effectiveness of investments, which is called differently, but the essence is the same. The financial part has three vectors of division into blocks.

  • From the point of view of the financial management functions performed, the section is divided into a factual set of financial reports, a planning part, an analytical block and a project simulation calculation.
  • From the standpoint of localizing financial information, the section can be divided into a financial plan for a separate project and a plan integrated into the general corporate financial model of the company's activities for the entire project period.
  • In terms of the type of project financial plan or report on its implementation.

The last division vector of the section means that we extract from it:

  • profit and loss plan, cash flow plan and balance sheet forecast, which are sometimes called budgets, but the essence of this does not change;
  • reports of the same name: profits and losses, movement of the DS and the balance sheet.

Planning income and expenses

The central place of finance in business planning

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The subject of the course is relevant, i.e. a financial plan is the basis for obtaining long-term investments.

The purpose of the work is to analyze the preparation of the financial section in the business plan.

To achieve the set goals, it is necessary to solve the following tasks:

- theoretical foundations of drawing up a business plan;

- information about the main sections of the business plan;

- the main features of the business plan;

The financial section of the business plan is the largest block of this document. The article discusses the approaches to the formation of the finance section in the main international methodologies and the author's algorithm for working on it.

The primary goal of any business is profit. However, before the enterprise starts generating income, it is necessary to invest money in it and make the invested funds work for you. A well-designed financial plan in a business plan will help avoid the formation of a deficit in the organization's budget when the costs of implementing the project's work exceed revenues.

Any development always requires investments, which should be provided for when drawing up a financial plan for business projects.

What is a financial plan in a business plan: goals and objectives

The financial plan is an important part of any business project, which displays the results of the company's work for a certain financial period in monetary terms. The main function of a financial plan in a business plan is to calculate the profitability of an enterprise for several years in advance, in order to correctly set up organizational processes in the future, make adjustments in time, attract additional sources of income (investors, creditors, partners). In addition to mathematical calculations, the financial section of a business plan includes forecasts and analysis of the organization's activities. The unstable state of the market economy greatly affects the competitiveness of an enterprise, demand for sales, prices for raw materials, equipment and energy resources. The main task of the financial planners is to take into account all the risks and foresee possible changes in the economy. Inconsistencies in the document can lead the organization to bankruptcy. The task of the financial plan is to maintain a balance of expenses and incomes of the enterprise in order to obtain and increase profits. When the goals and objectives of the reporting financial period are formulated, it is necessary to determine the following calculated indicators:

  • the amount spent on the organization of production processes;
  • all sources of financing;
  • all necessary expenses: salaries, taxes, rent of premises , payment for utilities, purchase of raw materials and equipment, advertising, etc.;
  • factors that determine the financial stability of the organization, and the conditions under which profitability will take the maximum value;
  • organization of an advertising campaign, attracting investors and partners;
  • intermediate and final results of the organization's activities (forecast).

The financial plan is the center of management of the financial mechanisms of the enterprise, which demonstrates direct perspective and benefits for potential investors.

Content of the financial plan in the business plan

In the business plan of any enterprise, three forms of financial reporting must be submitted. This format is approved by the Legislation of the Russian Federation, and the financial statements are as follows:

  • Cash flow statement. The document allows you to consider the financial condition of the enterprise, whether it is capable of covering the current costs of organizing production and fulfilling other obligations. The report should indicate all sources of funding and income, as well as a list of needs for which the funds were spent. The report allows you to control the maintenance of a balance between the income and expenses of the enterprise: 1. The fact of a shortage of funds must be identified and eliminated in time (for example, by means of a cash loan), without interrupting the activities of the organization; 1. 2 When fixing inappropriate expenses, compensate for expenses by saving; 1. Regular verification of the reliability of the data on which the forecasts for the financial reporting period were built; 1. Have a stock of funds in case of unforeseen expenses, for example, breakdown or replacement of equipment, violation of the terms of the transaction, low sales figures); 1. Determination of the degree of self-sufficiency of the enterprise. For this kind of reporting, forecast data is not enough. The person responsible for the formulation of the document must be well versed in the nuances of the firm's work and know exactly when and from where it is possible to receive funds, and in what directions they will be applied.
  • Profit and loss statement. The document demonstrates the level of profitability of the enterprise, what profit is expected from the implementation of certain costs. The report is based on information on sales proceeds and expenses for paying obligations (wages, utility bills, taxes, loans, etc.). Thus, the estimated profit of the enterprise is calculated. Such a report is aimed at identifying the most profitable forms and profitable areas of the enterprise. To make forecasts, the following indicators are taken into account: 2. Sales forecast; 2. Costs of variable value, taking into account the rise and fall of prices; 2. Fixed costs for the reporting period. This report also helps to identify which particular product is in the greatest demand in order to increase its production, and, conversely, reduce the quantitative supply of goods and services that are not popular with buyers.
  • Enterprise balance. The document is the main form of accounting, which has two components: assets and liabilities. Assets are all the property of an organization in monetary terms, and liabilities are ways of acquiring assets: loans and borrowings, investments, shares. The balance sheet of the enterprise allows you to fix the monetary value of the enterprise for a specific date. Comparison of indicators with previous reporting periods for investors is considered the basis for the dynamic development of the enterprise and its reliability. The balance sheet of the enterprise is compiled monthly in the first year of the company's existence, and then quarterly.

The combination of the three above-described statements allows you to give an objective assessment of the financial condition of the organization.

Risk calculation and analysis

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1. Business plan (financial section)

1. Business planning as an element of the economic policy of the enterprise

1. The main financial and economic indicators of the enterprise

1. Financial section of the business plan

2. Assessment of financial performance

One of the specific methods of planning economic activities in a market economy, another form of government for its necessity and inevitability is the preparation of business plans.

Business planning is different from managerial planning, i.e. the entrepreneur is responsible for his own business. An entrepreneur must have a good idea of ​​the main components of his business - finance, production, marketing, management.

The business plan reflects the most important areas of the enterprise's activities - what to produce, from what and how, where and to whom to sell, how to attract consumers, what resources (finances, personnel, equipment, raw materials) are needed and what financial results to be expected from the project. If we summarize all areas of activity, we get the main types of plans: strategic, production, financial, marketing.

A business plan is a document that describes the main aspects of the future enterprise, analyzes all risks, identifies ways to solve problems and ultimately answers and answers the question:

IT IS WORTH TO INVEST IN THIS PROJECT AND WILL IT BREAK IN PROFITS THAT WILL RECEIVE ALL THE COSTS OF EFFORTS AND FUNDS?

The main tool in the process of attracting investors for the purpose of expanding or organizing an enterprise is the preparation of a detailed document, which is designed not only to convince creditors of the feasibility of this project, but also to outline the prospect of making a profit as a result of investment. Based on this, the financial plan in the business plan is the most important section. Examples and options you can see and buy on the page in our catalog.

Section Purpose

With a financial plan as part of a business plan, you can:

  • determine the amount of investment that will be required to implement the project;
  • calculate the possible income;
  • indicate the estimated losses;
  • draw up a cash plan;
  • define funds;
  • draw up a forecast balance;
  • set financial ratios.

In this case, the financial plan of a business plan is usually represented by the following documents:

  • projection of the flow of funds;
  • forecast of results;
  • forecast balance of the company.

The forecast period usually covers a time span of 3 to 5 years. At the same time, it is important to note that just one calculation for the development of a large enterprise will not be enough.

What is included in the financial part

  • profit and loss statement;
  • cash flow document;
  • balance sheet.

It would be nice if the business plan in terms of the financial plan contains several possible scenarios. In a separate section, provide information about the risks and guarantees that you are ready to provide in the event of an unfavorable outcome of the case.

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