The difference between a business plan and an innovative project
Classification of types, methods of examination of innovative projects, its content and procedure. Expertise of the innovative project of the technology of the "Smart House" system of LLC "SK" SPBStroy ". Completing the project evaluation questionnaire, results of interviews with the team.
thesis, added 19.6015
The essence and importance of business planning for innovative activities of the enterprise. Analysis of the internal and external environment of an innovative project on the example of I. ... Laboratory". Production plan and product sales market. Risks of an innovative project.
thesis, added 26.2.010
Concept and types of an innovative project and program. Assessment and efficiency of investment projects and programs. Management of the implementation of innovative projects and programs. Life cycle of an innovative project. Industrial production process.
abstract, added 28.0.005
The main types of innovative projects, their content. Principles and tools for managing an innovative project. Methods for assessing the effectiveness of an innovative project on the example of analyzing a project for replacing equipment at JSC Poultry Farm "Buinakskaya".
term paper, added 13.6.015
Cash flows of the innovation project. Forecasting cash flows for financial planning and assessing investment attractiveness. Sensitivity analysis of critical project parameters to changes in external and internal factors.
term paper added on 23.1008
Financial mechanism for innovative entrepreneurship. Integral economic effect. Methods, forms and principles of organizing financing of innovative entrepreneurship. Internal rate of return of Beton OJSC. Return on investment period.
term paper added 19.5. 009
Analysis of the innovative potential of OJSC "Tambov plant" Komsomolets "named after N. Artemova. Schedule for the implementation of the project for the development of the design of the boiler. Determination of the amount of investment required. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an innovative project.
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Today it is impossible to imagine modern business without the implementation of projects. Even non-project companies are forced to implement projects. So, for example, an enterprise that continuously produces serial products using conveyor technologies can implement internal projects to modernize production, automate management, introduce information systems, etc.
The importance of project activities in project-oriented companies is self-explanatory. The entire business of such organizations is based on the implementation of projects. Examples include construction companies, mining companies, new product development companies, or unique product companies.
In turn, almost any project is associated with financial investments. At the same time, far from always an enterprise or an individual initiating a project has a sufficient amount of financial resources for its implementation. In such conditions, the necessary measure is to attract funds from other sources.
This does not mean that self-supporting projects should not be planned. Such projects are also investment projects and require maximum consideration of all the nuances and risks.
Planning is one of the main functions of management. And it is quite natural that when starting a project or a new enterprise, everything must be planned in detail. A good outline serves as a tool for structuring all the answers to difficult questions. This not only helps the initiator to understand all the intricacies and understand the weak points, but also greatly simplifies interaction with other project participants due to a common understanding.
Knowledge about the development of business plans is relevant primarily for business owners, managers, individuals, experts in evaluating project initiatives.
The purpose of this work is to study and systematize knowledge on business planning of innovative projects.
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The company's modern innovative activities go far beyond the scope of just a scientific and technical policy based on the development and implementation of a new product. Product innovations have been and remain an important strategic factor in development, but more and more often companies in the process of competitive actions use a whole range of innovations that affect all spheres and areas of management. The introduction of new marketing measures and approaches, the restructuring of companies, the transition to new types and methods of corporate resource management are also becoming the strategic goals of the company, and the most effective innovation policy is based on the simultaneous parallel implementation of various types of innovations.
Any innovation process, be it the release of a new product or diversification of production, is associated with the need to finance it either from the company's own funds or by attracting external sources of credit. The business plan, being a form of short-term planning of the company, performs the function of a mandatory document to be presented to credit institutions, and in many respects ensures a positive decision of the lender to finance innovative projects. As the practice of many companies shows, a convincingly and correctly drawn up business plan guarantees 90% of the receipt of the necessary loan.
However, business planning has another critical function. In the course of drawing up a business plan, all leaders and managers of the company face the problem of determining not so much the goals and strategies of the company, but rather the need to identify specific ways to implement innovations, calculate quantitative indicators and confirm the economic feasibility of the project itself.
The purpose of this course design is to develop a business plan of a production nature based on an analysis of the external environment and the internal situation in the company.
When developing a business plan, the following tasks should be solved:
Determine projected market share, sales and new product launches.
Determine the costs required for production and sale
Calculate the required additional capital investments.
Business planning in itself is extremely risky and inherently innovative. Does this mean that the business plan of an innovative project is all the more fraught with the danger of unfavorable scenarios and hidden "pitfalls"? Due to the unpredictability of the result, this is so. Therefore, planning an innovative business project should take into account all aspects of the contradictions and difficulties that await not only the developers, but also the project manager.
When is a business plan worthwhile?
To begin with, I propose, delimiting the subject area of the narrative, to get a clearer idea of the specifics of business planning in the innovation sphere. In the article on the topic of problems of implementation of innovative projects, we considered several fundamental concepts of the innovation sphere. In particular, innovation activity and innovation-active enterprise, innovation process and projects were identified. I would like to return to this set of business phenomena again, but from a somewhat different angle. Innovation is closely intertwined in the practice of research and development, which are very close, but not identical to scientific activities.
Innovation and scientific forms of activity differ both in terms of resource base and goals. The main scientific practice is intellectual potential, material and technical base, and other elements of the systemic institute of science. The resources of the innovation process are people-innovators, their knowledge, concept, technical and technological solutions, that is, what, by and large, is the result of scientific activity. The goal of science is to obtain qualitatively new knowledge, while the goal of innovation is the commercial use of the acquired knowledge and found solutions.
Note that commercial exploitation, not knowledge acquisition, is at the forefront of innovation. Consequently, initially innovative activity both in the real economy and in society as a whole is an entrepreneurial term, since commerce presupposes making a profit as a goal. Another thing is that the commercial background is not obvious for all stages of the innovation process. Moreover, goal-setting for profit (especially for the initial stages) is even harmful.
An innovation and investment project (IIP) can cover the entire cycle of the innovation process. But this does not happen very often. Basically, there are projects of two kinds, the first of which covers the stages of the phase of creating an innovative product, and the second type of project-type activities includes the phase of commercialization of the innovation. Below you will find a two-phase model of an innovative project, which has almost become traditional today.
Phases, stages and stages of a complete innovative project (click to enlarge)
Let's ask ourselves a question: at what stage does business planning become appropriate in the innovation process? It will not be an exaggeration to note that at the stage of formulating an idea (innovative concept) and even at the stage of development, the level of uncertainty is very high. In this period, it is extremely difficult to answer the question: is the innovation commercializable or not? And any modeling of the future in the form of forecasts of market reaction, production opportunities and cash flows is practically meaningless. This does not mean at all that at the first stages it is not necessary to study the market in relation to the future product, but the development of a business plan for an innovative project acquires full meaning only when the IIP enters the commercialization phase.
Goals and objectives of the IIP business plan
The purpose of business planning is to provide documented justification, proof to the customer, investors and other stakeholders that the innovation concept is sound in three main aspects. The first aspect is the acceptance by the market of the product of the embodied idea. The second aspect is considered a complex of financial indicators of the efficiency of IIP. Finally, as a third starting point, the professionalism of the team is taken into account, capable of not only designing and producing an innovative product, but also ensuring its conclusion and promotion in the target market.
If the indicated aspects can be positively assessed by the readers of the business plan and accepted as convincing arguments for the key thesis-developers' request, then the planning goal has been achieved. And the thesis, as a rule, is one: "Make a decision on the launch of the project and on its financing (crediting, subsidies, etc.)!" It all depends on the composition of persons interested in working out a decision on the fate of the IIP.
In this regard, it is difficult to talk about an innovative project not tied to a specific situation, because there are no universal solutions in project management. Therefore, I propose not to take into account the small, newly created innovative business. We will focus on the example of a medium or large manufacturing company with a well-developed regular management. The branch of activity does not matter, just as, however, it is not so important what the specific weight of the company's activity is with an innovative orientation.
These can be local projects or project business, where the market strategy itself is innovative in nature. Suppose that the company has a dedicated management department responsible for the development and maintenance of innovative products. The innovative concept has been brought in its embodiment to the level of a working prototype of a new unique product. The introductory notes indicated above allow you to more accurately decide on the goals and type of business plan to be developed. As a rule, the type and structure of the plan are directly related to the goals and objectives of the IIP.
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
ST. PETERSBURG NATIONAL
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES, MECHANICS AND OPTICS
INSTITUTE OF COLD AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Study Guide Approved by UMO for Industrial Management Education as a study guide for students enrolled in the training area 080200 Management of the Master's Program "Innovation Management"
St. Petersburg UDC 338.; 658.; 658.
BBK 65.9 (2) 29 + 65.9 (2) 23 + 65.9 (2) 34.
M Minko I. Business planning of innovative projects: Textbook.
tutorial. SPb .: NRU ITMO; IHiBT, 2021 .-- 171 p.
ISBN 978-5-7577-0473 The goals, objectives, principles and methods of business planning of innovative projects are presented. The main attention is paid to the technique of performing calculations and operations for the development and execution of sections and materials of business plans, the organization of business planning processes for innovative projects.