Start of a business plan for an investment project

In this article, we begin to consider the issues of direct development of a business plan. There are three known reasons when it is required to prepare a business plan for an investment project: opening a new business, a new direction of an existing company and creating a new market product. Almost every businessman is faced with business planning, and a reasonable question often arises: where to start, how to act competently and accurately from the first steps?

Initial requirements for the business plan

Suppose an entrepreneur or head of a company intends to prepare a business plan on his own, without involving consultants. Even if a company has economists on its staff, it is best to pilot it under the auspices of a decision maker. This significantly improves the overall quality of work and further seriously helps to put business planning (BPL) on stream. In addition, if a business person himself participates in planning, research and analysis, at least in a supervising aspect, the process of negotiations with potential investors is facilitated. The reasoning in the mouth of a competent leader is strengthened and the rationale becomes more powerful.

The aim of the business plan is to convince the main stakeholders of the developer's competence, the reliability of the data included in the business plan, the literacy of calculations and the effectiveness of participation in the project. Therefore, the development of a business plan for an investment project is based on the strength of its idea, the realism of market forecasts, the consistency of financial plans and the accuracy of economic calculations. By business plan, we mean a document that logically consistently presents a comprehensive justification for the success of an investment project.

The plan uses investment marketing, planning, financial performance appraisal, and simulation tools. It works as a detailed providing factor in the process of persuading the investor, lender, decision maker from the customer's side. The basic principles of BPL are set forth in the material on the place of business planning in business activity. When starting to develop a business plan, in addition to the principles, it is also important to take into account the requirements that apply to the business plan as a presentation document (the diagram presented above). Let's consider some of these requirements.

  • Structured and compact document. In business, there have been unified requirements for the form, composition and sequence of the main sections of the plan developed for decades. This document should not be excessively large, its maximum length is no more than 50-70 pages.
  • Realism and reliability of information. The information that is accepted for calculations must be confirmed by real statistics and data from comparative studies (benchmarking). Information on the external investment environment, sales and internal resource costs must be adequate, reliable and verifiable. Getting some reliable data is very laborious. It is important not to allow adventurous connivance in specifying numbers, which, when checking them, can discredit the entire business plan.
  • The relevance of the information used in the calculations. Non-specific, overly generalized conclusions, forecasts for planning actions are unacceptable. Little specific and insignificant facts should also not be accepted for use.

Compliance with the structure of the business plan

The structure of a business plan for an investment project in ordinary activities is not something rigidly formalized. It depends on the field of activity, the size of the project and the type of participants to whom this document is focused. For example, some banks offer borrowers forms for consideration by credit committees. The same practice is used by regional business incubators and republican, regional ministries of economic development for the purpose of making decisions on the allocation of grants.

In the article devoted to the meaning of the structure of a business plan, a comparative analysis of the composition of sections of a business plan is carried out according to the main international methods used in Russia (UNIDO, EBRD, KPMG, BFM Group). The most widespread is the implementation of the UNIDO methodology and the corresponding LTP structure. Below are the typical sections of the document that are included in the most detailed version of the business plan.

  • Title page.
  • Privacy Memorandum.
  • Summary.
  • Introduction.
  • Description of the industry, company and its current activities.
  • Description of the project and its product (sometimes included in the marketing plan).
  • Marketing plan.
  • Production and sales plan.
  • Investment plan.
  • Organizational plan.
  • Financial plan.
  • Organizational and legal aspects.
  • Financial and economic analysis and assessment of the project's effectiveness.
  • Warranties and risks.
  • Applications.

The presented sections in their entirety are drawn up for medium and large projects, the implementation of which is carried out with the attraction of significant financial resources from external sources. In such cases, a standardized full justification is required that the profitability and efficiency of the project will allow not only to generate sufficient profit, but also to repay the loan on time. The main points, carefully analyzed by banking experts, relate to marketing, financial plans, stability, efficiency, break-even analysis and risk assessment.

If the project does not require the attraction of significant investments or significant borrowings, the LTP can be carried out for internal purposes, then in a number of sections there is no need for it. So, for example, you do not need a confidentiality memorandum, part of the introduction, a description of the industry and company, organizational and legal aspects. The investment plan can be combined with the financial plan, other main sections remain unchanged or somewhat reduced according to the requests of the management. The development and execution of a business plan must comply with the principle of economic feasibility. In some cases, the document is "compressed" to fit a business case in a small Excel file.

The article describes an example of the structure of a business plan, a summary of its main points. The article also contains a description of the sequence of development of an investment project.

Briefly about the main points of the business plan structure

The structure of a business plan is a sequence of stages in the execution of an investment project, which contains information describing the goals of the project, prerequisites and tools for achieving them.

The correctness and variability of the wording of the structure of the developed business plan depends, first of all, on the industry in which the company will operate, on its scale and on the specific type of activity.

If the project describes the creation of a manufacturing enterprise, then the structure becomes more complicated, it must describe in detail all production processes and characteristics of the products, taking into account the technological features and the cost of products. In the case of trading companies, the structure may be simpler, and the main attention when developing a business plan should be paid to market research, the right choice of a niche and the peculiarities of building a distribution network.

But in any case, when developing the structure of a business plan, there are points that are mandatory for any investment project.

  • cover page;
  • information on confidentiality requirements, reflecting the level of restrictions on the disclosure of information contained in the project, set by the developer;
  • summary, with a brief description of the essence of the plan, its goals and objectives, information about the company and its partners;
  • market analysis, with the results and description of the conducted marketing research;
  • description of the competitive environment on the market, with the definition of the planned positions of the developed company;
  • a description of the product, including its competitive characteristics, factors of attractiveness to customers, assortment line and price level;
  • a marketing strategy expressed in a specific plan, describing actions to promote the product and form a positive image of the company and customer loyalty;
  • a sales plan;
  • the main nuances of production and technological processes;
  • organizational aspects of the project;
  • financial model, with calculations of income and expenditure parts, the formation of the main financial and economic parameters of the investment project;
  • assessment of existing risks and ways to reduce them;
  • applications.

Also, if, for example, you need a business plan for Sberbank, then you should remember that the requirements for the document will differ from the general ones.

Example of a business plan structure

Let's consider the main components of the structure of a business plan, with the disclosure of the content of each paragraph:

  • Title page. This is the face of the business plan, it contains the name of the company and the project itself, contact details, the date of development and, if necessary, data on the need for investment and the payback period.
  • Privacy Statement. This section of the business plan structure describes the developer's requirements for the terms of use of the information contained in the project. That is, all persons who will study the project must take into account the copyright of the initiator and use the data only under the conditions described in this provision.
  • Investment project summary. This item serves as a means of creating a first impression and generating interest from potential investors and financial partners. The resume should fit in a brief volume the main findings of the essence of the project and its advantages, for which it includes: the essence and purpose of the project, what resources are needed for implementation, who is the initiator, unique characteristics, and the main parameters of investment attractiveness.
  • Market analysis. The section contains a description and geography of the conducted marketing research, including an assessment of the market capacity, competitive environment and characteristics of consumer behavior. Based on this information, a strategic marketing plan is formulated.
  • Description of the company and its planned place in the market. This element of the structure of the developed business plan contains complete information about the company:
  • the assessment of the position in the industry and the organizational form;
  • the lines of activity and the range of products or services provided ;
  • address, space requirements, expected work schedule;
  • staff structure, etc.
  • Product / service characteristics. This point should form the main qualities of the product that determine its competitiveness, the value of consumer demand and the features of the organization of its production:
  • list of names;
  • ways of using and meeting demand ;
  • consumer competitive parameters;
  • features of maintenance and organization of customer service.
  • Strategic plan for marketing and distribution activities. The content of the section is based on the results of marketing research and represents an action plan to achieve strategic goals and objectives, which includes the following points:
  • planning the volume of demand and tools to stimulate it; <
  • distribution channels and competitive price level #
  • consumer attractiveness properties, etc.
  • sales plan.
  • Technological nuances. This element of the business plan structure is responsible for describing the features of the technological process and the equipment required for its organization.
  • Organizational preparation issues. The section contains the features of the legal side of business, a list of actions for its normal start and other organizational and regulatory activities.
  • Financial model of the investment project. Within the framework of this section, the following are carried out:
  • calculations of the schedule and volumes of external financing, including a description of potential suppliers of raw materials and supplies;
  • planning of operating costs;
  • formation of an income budget based on a sales plan, assortment and price level;
  • calculation of the main parameters of investment attractiveness, in the form of profitability, payback period, investment return schedule and other indicators.
  • Risk - management. This paragraph of the structure of the investment project describes the internal and external risks that may arise during the implementation, as well as the tools and ways to reduce them, incorporated in the process of developing a business plan.
  • Project attachments. All documents that were used in the design process and to which there are references in the text of the project are taken out here. An example of such documents can be copies of agreements and contracts, survey and observation data obtained in the course of marketing research, price lists of competitors and suppliers, etc.

In general, a competently drawn up and filled structure of a business plan will justify the effectiveness of the project and prove its attractiveness for potential investors. To optimize the costs of material, time and human resources, download from our website a full-fledged ready-made business plan, which already includes the financial parameters of the project required to justify the investment. Or order an individual turnkey business plan tailored to the specifics of your particular company.

Stages of development of an investment project

A business plan for an investment project is a document that represents its merits, or rather, compliance with existing economic and legal norms, profitability, efficiency, resistance to economic instability and qualitative differences from other existing projects. This document should highlight the long-term prospects for investment, namely the possibility of expanding and further developing production.

Why should you draw up a business plan for an investment project?

Given the current conditions of a market economy, none of the enterprises will be able to work profitably without an in-depth development of a business plan. Drawing up and in-depth analysis of business plans makes it possible to see exactly how the business will be managed to ensure its efficiency and profitability, as well as the ability to return investments.

Due to the constant changes taking place in the economic environment in which companies have to operate, it is planned to revise and refine the business plan, which ultimately forces the company to develop a mechanism for involving the management team in this work.



The business plan of the investment project pursues internal and external goals. Its external side is intended to justify the trust of creditors and investors, convincing them of the high potential of the enterprise, its competent employees, as well as convincing them of the need to provide financial and strategic assistance.

Simply put, the lack of a well-designed plan that will be systematically adjusted in accordance with constantly changing economic conditions is a significant drawback that reflects managerial weakness, as a result of which it becomes more difficult to attract financial resources and achieve long-term stability in a competitive environment ...

We can say that the preparation and pre-launch analysis of a business plan for an investment project is, in fact, a CRITICAL POINT and, undoubtedly, the basis of all executive and planning activities of the company. This document is by far the most important source, accumulating strategic information, as well as ways of direct influence of management on the future economic position of the company, and in addition, describing the ways and means of achieving growth in profitability. In general, the investment, operational and financial policy of the company must fully comply with the strategic goals and directions that are set out in the business plan.

Business planning allows the management system to carefully study all its shortcomings, thereby forcing to consider the specific factors and characteristics that affect the company's competitiveness. Therefore, the requirements that are provided for business plans are the conditions for creating an effective management strategy and self-improvement in the whole management system.

The value of business plans can be determined by the quality of the proposals they contain and the completeness of the information. The business plan of an investment project should never reflect the prejudices or exaggerations of its authors. This well-written document is a very useful and highly effective marketing tool. And investors pay special attention to the likelihood of its execution over a certain period of time, which directly reflects the competence of the company's management system.

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Business plan of an investment project: essence, structure, preparation

Concept and meaning of a business plan

As world practice shows, one of the key elements in the investment process is a business plan, which literally translated from English means "business plan", or "business plan". The significance of this document is so great that in a number of Western European countries it is impossible to register a new enterprise with the relevant governing bodies without providing the necessary documentation and a business plan in the set.

Since the beginning of the 90s of the last century, the term "business plan" began to be used in the practice of the CIS countries, when they entered the era of economic restructuring and life itself required a change in approaches to the principles of enterprise management in market conditions [1 --7].

An investment project is a set of documents regulating the development of the concept of prospective investments and the implementation of a business plan within the framework of an investment project (organization of the structures necessary for this and implementation of measures planned within the framework of the investment project) In this case, the term "investment project" refers to a time-defined activity, organized within a specific project; and the concept of "business plan" - to the company and its ongoing activities.

The business plan of an investment project is an effective tool for planning investment activities in accordance with the needs of the market in a changing external environment [8; 101]. Figure 1 shows that a business plan can be used in different situations and with benefits for different people.

business plan investment project

In general, a business plan is needed in the following situations:

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Volga State Academy

Examination by discipline:

Investment planning

"Business - investment project plan"


General characteristics of the business plan

The essence of planning

Concept and objectives of the business plan

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