Investment project business plan

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The definition of an investment project is given in Law No. 39FZ, as well as in "Methodological Recommendations for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Investment Projects" (No. VK 477, approved by the Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Finance and Gosstroy of the Russian Federation 21. 6. 9d). It should be borne in mind that in the "Methodological Recommendations." The concepts of "project" and "investment project" are separately introduced. So, the term "project" is understood in two senses:

* as a set of documents containing the formulation of the goal of the upcoming activity and the definition of a set of actions aimed at achieving it;

* as a complex of actions (works, services, acquisitions, management operations and decisions) aimed at achieving the stated goal;

that is, as documentation and as an activity. In the future, in all cases, unless otherwise specified, the term "project" will be used in the second sense.

The investment project (IP) in the "Methodological Recommendations." is defined in accordance with the Law "On Investment Activity ..", and it means the justification of the economic feasibility, volume and timing of capital investments, including the necessary design and estimate documentation , developed in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation and standards (norms and rules) approved in accordance with the established procedure, as well as a description of practical actions for making investments (business plan). In other words, according to this definition, an investment project is, first of all, a comprehensive plan of measures, including design, construction, acquisition of technologies and equipment, personnel training, etc., aimed at creating a new or modernizing the existing production of goods (works, services) with the purpose of obtaining economic benefits.

Business plans are primarily intended to facilitate the entry of highly competitive new types of goods and services into the market. Consequently, any investment business project must have an appropriate business plan to substantiate the optimal indicators for the production and sale of goods and services both in the domestic and foreign markets. In market relations, the business plan itself turns into a kind of product, the promotion of which to the external banking-credit or financial-investment environment surrounding the enterprise should bring maximum income to the developers of the new project.

With a stable and stable operation of the enterprise, the business plan can be aimed at updating fixed assets and developing new technologies. With a significant decline in production that occurs during the transition period, the business plan should provide for the search for new markets, expansion of product sales, etc. In some cases, the development of comprehensive business plans is required, in others - local business projects. Business plans are needed for the opening of any new project or business for all manufacturers and entrepreneurs.

The concept of business planning is interpreted in different ways by many scientists. A business plan is, as defined by I.V. Lipsits, a document that describes aspects of a future commercial enterprise, analyzes the problems it may face, and also establishes ways to solve them. The business plan, ultimately, must give the correct answer to such important questions of market relations as the possible cost of the project and the projected income. Every entrepreneur should know how much a new project will cost and whether this business will bring income, and if so, when and what is the degree of risk? The answers to these questions of rational management in complex market relations are provided by a correctly drawn up business plan. The best foreign experience shows that in the market conditions all manufacturers need to draw up plans for both long-term and current activities.

The mechanism of business market planning, as V.M. Popov rightly believes, includes the theory, methodology and practice of planning and management activities, covering general patterns and the Russian specifics of market economic relations. Landmarks, methods and tools of management have changed, which are based on the market laws of supply and demand. In these conditions, business planning or business plans should combine all stages of the implementation of entrepreneurial projects: from the choice of a strategic or tactical goal to its full implementation in the relevant market. Business planning includes such stages as the choice and justification of the type of activity, the identification of the most realistic projects for its implementation, the economic assessment of costs and benefits, the development of a detailed business plan, ensuring the implementation of planned activities, adjusting planned indicators and clarifying the actual efficiency of using the business project.

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