Coursework: Design Structures and Their Applications

In this article, you will learn:

Project management is a popular system used by many Russian and foreign organizations to improve the quality of goods and services, optimize production costs and maximize profits. What is the essence of project management and how to apply it in the work of the company?

The essence and goals of project management

Any project consists of a certain number of stages or stages, each has its own goals, tools, necessary activities. In order for all stages of the project to be completed as efficiently and efficiently as possible, they need to be managed.

Project management (in the English version - project management) involves the scheduling of work, the appointment of responsible persons for each stage, the selection of the performers from the company staff who will work on the program, the direct implementation of the planned and control of the received results.

The main goal of project management is to achieve the set task in a short time and minimize potential risks associated with a lack of resources, manufacturing defects, etc.

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The key to successful project management is planning of all stages and types of activities. Depending on the specifics of the project, both short-term and long-term planning can be applied. So, if it is important to complete all the work without delay, then when drawing up plans, they set strict time frames for the completion of each stage. If achieving a set goal is more important than timing, then project plans can allow a certain degree of flexibility.

The main advantages of project management in a company are: focus on the bottom line, well-established communication with clients and customers, the ability to quantify the achievement of a particular goal, the innovative nature of the methodology.

Disadvantages of project management: requires more financial and time resources than standard management methods, as it requires careful planning.

Interesting historical examples of project management

Fundamentals of project management began to be applied in practice a very long time ago - many millennia ago in the construction of urban and rural settlements. In those days, there was no clearly formulated set of principles and rules of project management, they were blurred, individual elements could be found in philosophy, religion, legal norms and mythology of ancient people.

According to historians, the most striking example of the application of project management was the Sumerian civilization, which originated in Ancient Mesopotamia.

Project management in the organization: structure, responsible persons and methods of work organization

What is a business plan?

A business plan is a document that describes the goals of an enterprise, the reasons why goals are considered achievable, and an action plan to achieve those goals. This is an enterprise activity program, which includes information about it, about its product and production, about the market situation, marketing, organization of operations, etc. The business plan also describes the planned costs of the enterprise.

The content of the business plan depends on the requirements and goals of the customer. The business plan may focus on internal and external factors. In the first case, intermediate goals are developed that are required to achieve external ones. A business plan that focuses on external factors has broader goals and is mainly intended for external financial intermediaries.

East & West Change Management always prepares business plans in 3 scenarios - best, average and worst. This requires more time and labor to develop, but it allows you to work out the project more deeply, see the consequences more clearly, be prepared for the worst and have a separate action plan to achieve the best scenario for the development of events.

Main idea of ​​the project and description of implementation

This section of the document is a semantic center: the business idea itself and a summary of its characteristics and implementation, a description of the product life cycle, the frequency of secondary purchases, as well as the possibility of creating additional product lines, segmenting the main offer and forecast modification of the product along with the development of the market.

In our example of how to draw up a business plan yourself, after describing the idea of ​​creating an Internet radio station, the following questions should be disclosed: what broadcast format will be chosen, how and where the studio will be organized, what unique features will be for this unusual radio, for how long this format is designed for and when it will require updating, what and at what stages can be introduced into the broadcasting network to keep the audience's interest, how often commercial and alternative advertising is planned to be released.

If this chapter is considered in the context of the brewing line, then it will be modified only in accordance with the product: what kind of beer will be produced and how it should attract the consumer. The answer to this question can be not only the qualitative characteristics of the beer itself, but a trademark legend, for example, Tinkoff (Russia) or Lvovskoe (Ukraine), can also be a factor of attraction. What subtypes (assortment) of beer is planned for release, what is the lifespan of each of them, which will be the center of sales. How will the assortment line be modified at the end of the first product life cycle?

The structure of the business plan implies that after getting acquainted with the market analysis and the main idea, further delving into the details of the marketing, production and administrative organization will not raise questions from potential investors why the idea is being implemented this way. The answer to this question should be found in the Keynote chapter and based on actual market performance.

Who is the business plan for?

Independent Business Planning

Methodological recommendations for developing business plans are posted on the portals of regional employment centers or chambers of commerce and industry. From them you can glean the features and standards of documents.

The article describes the structure and methods of organizing work in project management

Chapter 1. Theoretical Aspects of Application of Project Organizational Structures

1. ... The concept and typology of the organizational structure of the enterprise

1. ... Characteristics of the project organizational structure

1. ... Principles of building design structures and approaches to their design

Chapter 2. Practice of application of design structures on the example of the repair production enterprise of JSC "Electroremont-VKK",

2. ... The main problems of the general state of the electric power industry

2. ... Prerequisites for building a project management system for repairs

2. ... application of design structures on the example of a repair production enterprise JSC "Electroremont-VKK"

The relevance of the choice of this topic is due to the fact that today in the activities of Russian enterprises the role of project management is growing more and more, as an integral part of their activities. These companies include research and design institutes, construction and development organizations, consulting and many other companies. As a rule, the implemented projects are investment and innovative in nature, without affecting the main activities of the enterprise. However, for some types of business, the project management system can become the main principle of organizing the activities of an enterprise. This is due to the fact that the traditional management structures that have been used in enterprises for several decades without significant changes are currently not able to ensure effective work and only exacerbate the situation, pushing the enterprise into a crisis, and therefore more and more often any changes in the internal environment of the enterprise, those arising from the optimization of business processes, restructuring, automation, etc. are carried out in the form of projects and for their successful implementation require the use of systematic approaches and project management methods.

By their nature, many businesses are project-oriented and for them project technologies are the basis for the success of their current activities.

The practice of implementing strategic management systems has shown that most of the strategic goals that an enterprise sets for itself cannot be realized within the framework of current activities (business processes, organizational structure and management system). The task of implementing the strategy is effectively solved by introducing a development management system based on design technologies.

Among all sections of the business plan:

  • Cover Page
  • Confidentiality Memorandum
  • Executive Summary
  • Investment Plan
  • Marketing plan
  • Production plan
  • Organizational plan
  • Financial plan
  • Risk analysis

it is the organizational plan that describes the project staff, initiators, their shares in project management, qualifications and remuneration of project managers, as well as staff motivation.

If you are writing a business plan to receive investments for the development of an already operating enterprise, you will need to prove to potential partners that its organizational structure is as effective as possible. If you are just planning to open a company, production or retail outlet, you will need to describe in detail how you are going to ensure the operation of the new business.

All information related to the management of the enterprise should be presented in a section called "Organizational plan". Moreover, it is this point of the business plan that will prepare the ground for writing the financial section of the project.

Business Plan Organizational Plan Structure

Legal form

First of all, in this section it is necessary to justify the choice of the form of activity. Indicate whether you are an individual - individual entrepreneur, or the founder of an organization - LLC or JSC. In the latter case, it is imperative to list the governing bodies and their powers, the composition of the founders and their rights and obligations. After that, it is necessary to describe the organizational structure of the enterprise.

Organizational structure

Organizational structure is the composition, system of relationships and functions between the various departments of the enterprise, each of which is responsible for its own area of ​​activity and is part of the hierarchical system of the organization.

Among all sections of the business plan:

  • Cover Page
  • Confidentiality Memorandum
  • Executive Summary
  • Investment Plan
  • Marketing plan
  • Production plan
  • Organizational plan
  • Financial plan
  • Risk analysis

it is the organizational plan that describes the project staff, initiators, their shares in project management, qualifications and remuneration of project managers, as well as staff motivation.

If you are writing a business plan to receive investments for the development of an already operating enterprise, you will need to prove to potential partners that its organizational structure is as effective as possible. If you are just planning to open a company, production or retail outlet, you will need to describe in detail how you are going to ensure the operation of the new business.

All information related to the management of the enterprise should be presented in a section called "Organizational plan". Moreover, it is this point of the business plan that will prepare the ground for writing the financial section of the project.

Business Plan Organizational Plan Structure

Legal form

First of all, in this section it is necessary to justify the choice of the form of activity. Indicate whether you are an individual - individual entrepreneur, or the founder of an organization - LLC or JSC. In the latter case, it is imperative to list the governing bodies and their powers, the composition of the founders and their rights and obligations. After that, it is necessary to describe the organizational structure of the enterprise.

Organizational structure

Organizational structure is the composition, system of relationships and functions between the various departments of the enterprise, each of which is responsible for its own area of ​​activity and is part of the hierarchical system of the organization.

There are several types of organizational structures, namely linear, functional, linear-functional, etc. However, whatever the type of structure, your task is to emphasize that it is as efficient as possible, namely:

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