Business plan concept types structure
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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Ural State Economic University
Question Main types and types of business plans
The business plan describes the goals and objectives that the organization needs to solve both in the near future and in the long term. It contains an assessment of the current moment, the strengths and weaknesses of the project, market analysis and information about consumers of products or services.
Business plans are prepared and intended for internal purposes of the organization and external users. When preparing this or that business plan, it is necessary to take into account the interests that are pursued by certain users of business plans, which is achieved by shaping the work in a certain way. The business plan should provide answers to the reader for all the questions he might have. Thus, business plans for different consumers can differ significantly both in terms of financial calculations and the general philosophy of work. Below is a list of the main types and types of business plans 11 How to develop a business plan. Toolkit. M .: INFRA-M, 1993, p. 34:
1. A business plan for yourself.
This is a kind of self-control: what is needed to open a case? Is the idea realistic enough?
2. Business plan for obtaining a loan from a Russian bank.
Until recently, a Russian entrepreneur could submit only a two-page feasibility study (Feasibility Study) to obtain a loan from a bank, which, however, was not decisive for a bank or other financial institution to make a decision to grant a loan. Personal connections, recommendations, as well as the awareness of bankers about the state of affairs of the borrower were decisive (as a rule, entrepreneurs took loans from banks whose clients they were). Recently, more and more Russian banks are demanding a business plan from entrepreneurs in order to organize the final decision on granting (or not issuing) a loan.
When preparing such works, special attention is paid to proving the unconditional return of credit funds for the planned period in case of pessimistic and moderately pessimistic scenarios. As a rule, such work is carried out in compliance with the requirements of the credit institution to which the project is supposed to be provided. Particular attention is paid to the subject of the pledge. Therefore, the work is carried out in close contact not only with the client, but also with the credit structure.
Business plan (from English - business plan) includes two terms "business" and "plan".
In modern reference books and dictionaries, business is a proactive independent economic activity of a subject in a market economy, aimed at making a profit by creating and selling certain types of products and services.
Business is carried out at the expense of its own and / or borrowed funds at its own risk and under its own property responsibility. Synonyms for the concept of "business" - entrepreneurship, commerce, trade, organization, firm.
A business plan is a document containing an economic justification for the development of an enterprise, the release of new products or the implementation of other commercial ideas.
A business plan combines the features of strategic and current plans. It is drawn up during the creation of an enterprise or at critical moments of its existence, for example, when expanding the scale of activities, attracting potential investors, issuing securities, etc. Development of a business plan allows you to predict various options for business development and identify problems that an enterprise may face.
Business plans are developed in various modifications depending on the purpose: a business plan of an enterprise, a business plan of an investment project for the release of new types of products (works, services, technical solutions).
This classification is shown in Figure 8.
An enterprise business plan is a program of effective enterprise management aimed at ensuring the competitiveness of the enterprise and the stable financial position of the enterprise. There are differences between the business plan of the established enterprise and the current one. In the first case, the company relies on predictive and estimated data that allow to develop the production, marketing and organizational structure of the company, to interest potential investors in the future prospects and profitability of their company. In the second case, the business plan is based on the results and experience of the operation of the enterprise, allows you to determine the possibilities for its development, to predetermine the changes to be made, to redistribute investments in those areas that will bring high income in the future.
An investment project business plan is a feasibility study for the implementation of innovations. It involves a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the proposed activities, an assessment of the investments necessary for their implementation and the solution of problems associated with the implementation of the project.
Business planning by its nature is a unique process, which is explained by the uniqueness of each investment project and enterprise. At the same time, in the development of any of them, basic principles are used that are general, regardless of the industry in which the project is being implemented, and the organizational and legal characteristics of the enterprise that implements it. These include the definition of business planning objectives and requirements for its development, as well as the choice of a typical structure of a business plan.