Starting a mushroom growing business
Growing mushrooms seems to be a very comfortable business for many. However, this is not always the case. A lot depends on the choice of the type of grown mushrooms, because different types of them require different conditions, which directly affects their yield.
In addition, they have different prices in the market, so even their varieties growing in large quantities may not lead to the long-awaited return on investment. But that's not all: many people forget that the science of biology classifies mushrooms as a separate kingdom with its own laws. In particular, we are talking about the methods of their reproduction - by disputes, and it is precisely here that very serious problems can appear.
In this regard, it seems interesting and useful to thoroughly consider the technology of growing oyster mushrooms as a business. We will evaluate the pros and cons, as well as take into account the feedback from the owners of such farms. In general, we will form the main provisions of the business plan for this business activity.
Prerequisites for producing oyster mushrooms at home (or why you shouldn't start doing it)
The idea of growing oyster mushrooms at home can come to the mind of anyone who at least once orders a salad from these mushrooms in a catering establishment. Even after adjusting for the "crazy" profitability of restaurant meals, the potential profitability of the process will not leave indifferent any beginning entrepreneur. In addition, the oyster mushroom mycelium is capable of yielding a harvest that is 1.5-2 times larger than that of the same mushrooms.
Let's add here the vertical arrangement of the substrate in the bags, which makes it possible to more ergonomically use the available volume of the room, the rapid growth and regular waves of the harvest of quite standard mushrooms. No sophisticated equipment is required here, so why not, in fact, start doing this production in the country? First, for fun, and then, who knows, maybe it will turn out to be a full-fledged business out of such an agricultural hobby?
And this is the standard line of thought of any energetic entrepreneur who has no idea about the details and subtleties of the disassembled technological process. And there are features and they are very burdensome. First of all, we are talking about high requirements for ensuring the cleanliness and even sterility of the processes. All: from preparing the substrate to sowing mycelium. In addition, the mushrooms themselves also require special conditions in terms of temperature, humidity and light. But the most important thing is all kinds of “waste of their life”. Disputes. This is not at all the same as seeds:
- Firstly, there are several orders of magnitude more of them;
- Secondly, they are microscopic, like dust - they quite easily penetrate the human respiratory system and what is most dangerous, they feel good inside. No, of course, there is no question of the growth of fungi inside the body, but the existing diseases can be aggravated by the oyster mushroom spores as if in a state;
- Thirdly, in order for the spores not to die, only amount of water. Therefore, you can be sure that if you start growing oyster mushrooms in the country, then very soon all the trees in the area will be covered with their colonies (whether you want it or not).
That is, it turns out that it is difficult to "charge" the farm for growing the mushroom in question (literally, expert knowledge and skills are required, as well as a sterile environment), so the growing process is also a highly responsible technological link, for example, requiring special air purification equipment.
If everything is done at random and "on the knee", then the mushrooms will not give the estimated yield, and the area will be "populated" with oyster mushroom spores. In the latter case, it is generally possible, instead of mushrooms, to gain prospects for litigation.
However, there is also a prize here: if you do everything right, you will receive the harvests of the mushrooms in demand on the market regularly and abundantly. So, there is something to risk for. Let us examine in more detail the various preparatory stages of this business. How to arrange everything and what you need to pay attention to first of all.
Business ideas with calculations that lead to money
How to grow mushrooms at home to earn money? What mushrooms are profitable to grow for sale, and in what conditions do they grow? What do farmers say about business? What financial costs and difficulties await an entrepreneur at the start? All this is described in the business plan for growing mushrooms with calculations.
Business plan for growing mushrooms
Despite the growth of mushrooms in the forest and free access to them, this is not enough for the consumer. For commercial purposes, mushrooms are obtained all year round in closed ground, and in the winter-spring period, the price for fresh mushrooms increases.
They grow mushrooms as a business and in the open field on the site, and even arrange their plantings in the forest. The business is profitable, so farmers are gradually developing in this niche.
Evaluating the idea
First you need to decide which mushroom to grow and how. It will not work to combine ideas - the farmer must choose one mushroom to grow at home and deal only with it. Therefore, an assessment of the idea is needed. To do this, answer the following questions:
- What mushrooms are we going to grow? - the main types of mushrooms for home growing 5-8 pieces.
- Grow on site or indoors? - truffles, shiitake, chanterelles grow on the site, and mushrooms and oyster mushrooms are obtained indoors. White mushroom and honey agarics can be obtained in both ways.
- Main business or side business? - if the main thing is, it is worth studying in detail the growing process, seriously investing and looking for clients for quintals of mushrooms.
- Do you have knowledge of mushroom cultivation? - there are many subtleties in the matter, and ignorance of the matter can lead to disastrous consequences.
- Will you be hiring workers on a permanent basis? - in a serious business, help may be needed, especially in the absence of knowledge in the preparation of the same substrate.
- Are there competitors? - Even a local resident who picks mushrooms in the forests can become a competitor.
- Where to sell mushrooms? - even in a small home business, you can get several tons of mushrooms a year, so decide the sales issue in advance.
- Are you prepared for the risks and the hard work? - growing most mushrooms indoors is laborious and harmful.
- Is it worth buying a ready-made mushroom growing business? - it is not recommended for a novice farmer to buy a ready-made mushroom business. Not knowing the case can lead to complete failure. Therefore, it is better to start yourself at home with small areas.
After choosing the most suitable mushroom for growing on an industrial scale, you can begin to study the technology of growing mushrooms at home. Also look at the pros and cons of this case.
- Good demand for mushrooms.
- Mushrooms can be grown on your plot.
- Unrealized mushroom can be preserved.
- Mushrooms are grown indoors or in a greenhouse all year round.
- Mushroom at home can become environmentally friendly.
- Almost any room in the growing area can be used.
The capacity of the champignon market in monetary terms is about 9 billion rubles. Previously, almost all products were supplied from abroad, but on August 6, 2021, the mushrooms came under an embargo. This forced foreign manufacturers to leave the Russian market. The niche became free, which allowed domestic entrepreneurs to start earning income from the sale of mushrooms. The uncomplicated management system and high return on investment attracted the attention of many businessmen to the industry. If an entrepreneur wants to start growing mushrooms, he will face competition.
Business Features and Benefits
Growing mushrooms as a business is an easy way to earn money, which has a number of advantages:
- growing champignons is easy;
- high-yielding mushrooms;
- inexpensive raw materials;
- business can be done in a village or in the city;
- profit is made all year round.
The harvesting process involves manual labor. The process can be automated, but expensive equipment is required. The room for growing mushrooms must be constantly cleaned - non-compliance with sanitary conditions provokes contamination of compost and soil. Subsequent batches may be degraded, so pay attention to cleanliness.
A competent approach to doing business will allow you to get about 45 kg of products from 3 square meters. Champignons cannot harm human health. Exceptions are variegated and yellow varieties. For cultivation for the purpose of subsequent sale, a two-port champignon is suitable (alternative name is cultivated).
Champignons for sale are grown industrially. The yield is 2-4 tons, so a separate plot will be required.
Champignon growing technology
- In the beds. The classic low-cost method - for implementation you need a film and compost. The method is seasonally dependent, since it is difficult to care for the beds in winter.
- In briquettes. Modern technique. The mixture is placed in briquettes, pressed a little. In this case, it is easier to care for the mushrooms.
- In containers. The technology is used by Canadians and Americans. The soil with mycelium is placed in containers, which are plastic or wooden. The containers are treated with an anti-mold compound.
- In bags. The substrate is placed in bags, a hole is made for the myceliums and suspended or straightened.
- Using technology. This method will require expensive equipment to control temperature, light, humidity, and growth.
Champignons grow on compost made from:
- straw ;
- horse, cow manure or chicken manure;
- gypsum and slaked lime.
The required amount of materials depends on the area of the room. The yield of mushrooms is increased by wheat or rye straw, but it must be fresh. Gypsum and lime are mineral additives. They promote the growth of mushrooms. You can replace lime and gypsum with bone meal. But do not use cold water for irrigation, as it contains chlorine.
Any business idea has its own life cycle. Competently built, with clear economic calculations and thoughtful development prospects, creative thought is usually successfully embodied and developed. However, if you want to create something grandiose in a week and in another two weeks get a million-dollar income, it is better to forget about business right away for the simple reason that such a plan is not viable.
The first question for opening any private enterprise, including mushroom growing, is to determine the starting steps.
We asked successful businessmen in various industries about where to start to act in order to build a successful business, and the following action plan was obtained:
Indicate an idea, or choose the right one.
Assess possible prospects on the ground.
Draw up a detailed business plan.
Provide funding. If you have your own start-up capital - great, if not - you need to find reliable sponsors who are ready to invest in a young company or take care of obtaining a loan. The last option is risky - in case of zero payback or going into the red, the borrowed funds will have to be repaid with predetermined interest rates.
Conduct "reconnaissance in force" - organize the sale of services / goods on a minimum scale in the proposed area of business development. Sales results will help assess the demand for a new product.
Register a company with the tax office. It can be an individual entrepreneur or an LLC. At the discretion of the initiator of the project. To do this, you need to submit an application for registration in a special form. The document must indicate the address at which the enterprise will be registered as a legal entity: the location of the rented premises or site, or the home address of the entrepreneur, is indicated. Currently, tax inspectors are checking the legal address within 10 days from the date of registration of a new enterprise.
Purchase of necessary materials, equipment, rental and repair of premises
Obtaining the necessary approvals depending on the chosen field of activity.
Organization of advertising your business.
The result of the work done is the last point - you can start developing your business.
Pros and cons of growing mushrooms
The main advantages of this business:
- Organic, "farm" products are now at their peak of popularity, and it is unlikely that the fashion for them will subside in the near future. Hence it follows - if you organize the sale of your products to specialized eco-shops, you can ensure yourself a high level of income.
- The process has already been carefully worked out. Technologically, everything is thought out - you don't need to invent anything, you just need to follow the instructions.
- Mushrooms can be grown all year round, including in the basement or even at home.
Cons of growing mushrooms:
- Mushroom cultivation belongs to the niche of agriculture, which means that it is greatly influenced by environmental factors. Part of the harvest can be lost due to problems with ventilation, insufficient or excessive lighting, etc. But this is not so much a minus of the business as such, as an indication of the need to be careful and accurate.
- A quick return on investment is only possible if the work is really hard and big. Or if you set up a sales channel in advance at a slightly overpriced price.
- Growing mushrooms as a business requires special clothing and protective equipment to prevent the development of disease. There is still no accurate information about the dangers of fungal spores during their growth, but it is better to close your airways.
What mushrooms to grow
There are two popular and demanded options on the market - champignons and oyster mushrooms. They can be grown with equal success, but oyster mushrooms are a little more capricious. For example, these mushrooms are very sensitive to any fluctuations in humidity and light. While champignons are more in demand in the markets, the competition for them is always higher. In addition, their appearance (marketable) deteriorates faster, so they need to be sold quickly.
Shiitake cultivation is also gaining momentum, which is associated with the fashion for exotic products, but it is definitely not worth starting a business with them. They can be added when the sale of oyster mushrooms or mushrooms is established, that is, as another source of income.
How much money is needed to start
The business plan for growing mushrooms has a lot to do with how the work will be done - automatically or manually. The most common method: growing mushrooms in special bags. Another option is regular beds or ridges. Sacks win over them, because they protect the breeder as much as possible from infections, not only in the current harvest, but also in the interval between them. In addition, this is the cheapest and easiest way, so it is usually chosen for work. Its disadvantage is manual filling of bags with compost.
But if there is an opportunity to invest more money in the business, then you can choose briquettes - completely mechanized and protected from the spread of infection mycelium. However, in this case, you should not expect a quick payback. That is, in the case of briquettes, you need to spend a little more and wait a little longer, but someone is quite happy with this state of affairs. In Europe, this type of mycelium is called "eco-briquettes" - they are easy to install and work with and allow you to mechanize the process to the maximum. There is also a Dutch shelf system, but it is more expensive and therefore less popular with entrepreneurs.
With the "manual" method of work, when the bags are clogged with their own hands (or hired employees), for 50 liters of mycelium and other related materials will have to spend about $ 100. If we are dealing with ready-made briquettes, then the costs for the same amount of material, but in a different format, will already be about $ 150-200.
How to grow mushrooms