Waste paper recycling as a business
In Russia, although they are trying to switch to electronic document management, the lion's share of documents is printed in traditional paper form. In addition, paper is used everywhere: newspapers, notebooks, packaging, various magazines, and outdoor advertising. Wood is used for the manufacture of paper: tens of hectares of it are cut down, which undoubtedly inflicts a blow on the country's ecology. If you want to make money and help nature, then consider the option of recycling waste paper as a business - this is a promising, profitable and "white" production that has excellent prospects.
To save one tree, it is enough to recycle 100 kilograms of waste paper. At first glance it seems that this is a lot, but in fact it is not so: Russian companies, universities and authorities produce tons of waste paper every day. By recycling it, you can produce new paper, protecting trees and conserving resources.
You should be aware that there are three types of waste paper. The division is based on quality:
- Highest, or A-category. Classic white paper falls under it: office documents, notebooks, books, etc.
- Average, or B-category. This includes various printing (magazines) and unpainted cardboard (including packaging).
- The lowest, or B-category. It includes everything else: newspapers, colored cardboard, etc.
The cost and value of waste paper varies depending on the category. It is easiest to recycle grade A clean paper, but that does not mean that you need to refuse to accept other types of paper. It is all recycled and allows the production of high-quality recyclable materials.
Before starting your own business, you need to decide on the direction of activity and the possible level of investment. There are three options for working (we will talk about them below). To choose the right one, you need to assess your capabilities, conduct market analysis and draw up a competent business plan for paper and cardboard recycling. After that, consider the possible prospects and choose which scheme of work suits you best.
Picking and pressing
The first option we are considering is considered the simplest: it is suitable for novice businessmen. It will require minimal investment and in the future may develop into a full-fledged production. The scheme of work is as follows:
- Raw materials are collected from the population and companies.
- The paper is compressed.
- The material is delivered to customers: to paper mills or construction plants.
Such production can be organized even in a garage or a small workshop with an area of 30–40 m2. All you need is a small truck (Gazelle) for transportation and a press. The cost of the press is about 300 thousand rubles, a used car will cost another 200 thousand. In total, you will need about 500 thousand rubles to get started. You can save 100 thousand rubles if you buy a used press, but you need to understand the equipment so as not to buy a worn-out unit.
The production of toilet paper is precisely the kind of activity whose fruits will always be in demand, and the need for it will never end.
Toilet paper is a basic commodity, so the manufacturer will never be at a loss.
Despite the fact that in our country there are quite a few enterprises specializing in the manufacture of toilet paper, everyone has the opportunity to take their place in the market.
The production of toilet paper as a business is economically profitable.
Every year in Russia the number of manufacturers of personal hygiene products, including toilet paper, grows by 7-9%.
A few years ago, budget options were in great demand among buyers.
Today the situation has changed and multilayer paper at a higher price has become more popular.
The main advantage of this business is that it won't be difficult to find a buyer.
Wholesale warehouses buy goods in large quantities, which allows at the initial stage to start selling immediately after the start of production.
You can sell goods without intermediaries - for this you should choose not too large outlets, because most supermarkets work through intermediaries.
The last option is to create your own dealer channel to work with clients without intermediaries.
The production of paper has undergone significant changes from the time of ancient China to the present day, and has also become a tidbit of business. Millions of turnovers spinning around here attract many aspiring and experienced entrepreneurs. But it will be difficult for small businesses to swim in the cellulosic ocean, so it is better to tune in to large-scale production.
The foundations of papermaking were laid even before our era in Ancient Egypt.
The Egyptians used the reed plant papyrus, which was soaked, dried, layered on top of each other and left under load until fully cooked.
Paper, close to modern, originated in China during the Han dynasty. According to legend, the Chinese emperor instructed his close servant Tsai Lun to invent material for writing, cheaper than silk, but of the same quality. Bamboo, mulberry, straw and even seaweed were used to make paper.
The modern papermaking process is a streamlined, automated, multi-stage and highly profitable activity.
Depending on the specifics of production, raw materials and characteristics of the finished product, the following types of paper are distinguished:
- Offset - used for printing books, forms, newspapers, magazines, notebooks, labels, etc. It is not particularly durable, does not have a coated layer, and is resistant to moisture.
- Newspaper - rather poor quality, since periodicals are designed for one-time use. Since they use unstable paints, newspapers turn yellow quickly.
- Packaging - very strong and moisture resistant to keep the contents safe.
- Office - of mediocre quality and inexpensive, as it should meet the needs of mass use.
- Coated - used for printing glossy magazines and any products for which a luxurious and pleasant appearance is important.
- Design - used for printing presentation products, for example, business cards.
- Superior - consists mainly of cellulose, cotton or linen and is used for printing banknotes and securities.
Paper quality must meet established standards to ensure reliable and functional consumer performance. The main quality indicators are:
- Composition. It defines the purpose of the paper web. Accordingly, by changing the type and ratio of raw materials, you can give the paper the necessary qualities.
- Mass 1 m 2. Depends on the raw materials used, it has a decisive effect on the density of the paper.
- White. The percentage of whiteness should be high to make text or drawings easier to read.
- Opacity. Allows the picture not to appear on the back side, is directly related to the bulk of the paper.
- Tensile strength. Determined by the structure of the paper, for example, for offset paper, the breaking length is about 350 mm.
- Porosity. Porous paper absorbs ink quickly, but discolors just as quickly.
- Smoothness. It provides uniformity of ink and ink application, expressed in seconds. For example, smoothness of quality coated paper 400 - 600 sec.
What is made of
The production of paper and cardboard is a complex process with extremely specific technology and, accordingly, requires the use of special equipment. In view of these difficulties, small business for the production of paper and cardboard did not become widespread, giving way to a niche for large enterprises. Nevertheless, the demand for their goods is not only not decreasing, but is growing from year to year, which creates favorable conditions for new players to enter the market. We will reveal the theoretical foundations of the process, talk about the types of products, methods of production and commercial activities in the industry.
The first thing to understand at the stage of business planning is to determine the specialization of the enterprise. Despite the seeming simplicity of the product, its physical parameters, and hence manufacturing methods, can vary within a fairly wide range. Let's get acquainted with some basic definitions.
Paper is a material in the form of a sheet or web, obtained by the deposition of fibers (vegetable, synthetic, mineral and others) on forming devices, during which additional substances can be used, as well as through recycling. There are the following main types of paper:
- for printing (offset, typographic, newspaper, coated, for documents, etc.) - intended for applying text or images in an automated or automatic way, assumes a variety of shapes, sizes, colors, physical characteristics;
- for writing, sketching and painting - designed for manual application of graphic data, characterized by improved absorbent properties, density and roughness;
- decorative - serves as a packaging material, used to decorate surfaces , giving them an aesthetic and complete look;
- electrical - used as an insulator or material for the manufacture of sealing gaskets;
- photosensitive - used to create and copy images due to the ability of some chemicals to be active when hitting them with light;
- cigarette - serves as a material for the manufacture of outer shells of cigarettes and cigarettes, should ensure uniform, safe strong and relatively slow burning;
- absorbent - used in medicine and technology, in particular, in the production of filter elements;
- household - intended for everyday use in everyday life, includes toilet paper, napkins , paper towels, etc.
And this is not a complete list of types of paper, each of which includes many subspecies. Common to them, often, are only density and thickness - respectively, no more than 250 g / m and 0.5 mm. Otherwise, the fibrous product is classified as cardboard, although there is no clear delineation of these concepts in the regulatory documentation. Among the most common types of cardboard:
- polygraphic - designed for applying graphic information by printing or other method, used to create covers or bindings, and also, due to a special structure, in some filter elements;
- technical - used in light industry, electronics, some types of mechanical engineering as a structural, insulating and sealing material;
- construction - used in the construction of buildings as an independent product or part of a semi-finished product, for example, drywall;
- container - serves as a raw material for the manufacture of individual packages of goods and large packages, often corrugated due to the property of depreciation.
Recently, new, unusual fibrous materials with special properties appear more and more often: ultra-lightweight, ultra-strong, matte, with special impregnations and coatings, but we will not delve into the nuances of their production yet. Let's better try to figure out what the technology of production of paper of the most demanded type is - offset.
The production of paper from cellulose and other fibrous materials begins in special grinding machines. If the technical standards for the manufacture of a particular type of paper involve the use of several types of raw materials, an appropriate number of apparatus will be required, the contents of which will subsequently be mixed in the required proportion, forming a thick mass. Binders, adhesives and dyes are added to it, after which they are sent to the mixing pool. Then the mixture is diluted with running water and filtered, removing impurities and impurities. The result of these manipulations is the finished production raw material.
The market of sanitary and hygienic products, 60% of which is toilet paper, has been dynamically developing in Russia for 15 years. Despite the high competition in this area, it is by no means oversaturated, which provides opportunities for young entrepreneurs to develop their business. A private toilet paper business is a promising idea, the implementation of which allows you to count on a consistently high income.
By studying this article, the reader will learn about the stages of the implementation of this profitable business idea, get acquainted with its features, advantages, risks and calculations of the costs of organizing a business.
Research results indicate a high growth dynamics of the toilet paper market in Russia - it is developing rapidly, the consumption of goods is growing.
Comparing the Russian level of consumption with the indicators in the developed capitalist countries (USA, Western European countries, Japan), we can say that Russians use significantly less sanitary and hygienic products (SGI). There are prospects for expansion, even despite a temporary drop in consumption.
Before the introduction of economic restrictions on the part of a number of foreign countries, the volume of issue grew by 8-14% annually. According to the results of 2021, almost 3.4 billion rolls of goods were produced, which is 12.5% more than in 2021. Experts expect that the toilet paper market will grow by 6-8% every year.
In 2021, Russia produced 4.3 billion rolls of toilet paper, which is almost 12% higher than last year.
The leaders in the production sector are:
- SCA Hygiene Products Russia is a branch of one of the largest companies in the world that produces personal hygiene products;
- Hayat Kimya is a large Turkish company;
- Russian firm "Syaskiy PPM".
The market is gradually changing. The formerly popular single-ply products are becoming a thing of the past (its share in 2021 was less than 12%), 2- and 3-ply types of paper are replacing them, the shares of which in 2021 amounted to 61% and 24%.
This encourages companies to improve their products, making them more attractive to the buyer. Such changes should be taken into account by a novice entrepreneur in the course of organizing a business. Modern equipment allows us to produce high-quality products at low cost.
Basic costs to start production