Paving stone production as a business
Administrator "over a year ago
How it all began
How to start a gypsum tile business
This is what it takes to run:
- Renting a room of 15-20 sq. m. It must have water, drainage and a heating system. - Purchase of molds (for a start, 1-2 types). - Purchase of raw materials (gypsum G-16, lime, plasticizer). - Silicone for lubricating molds. - Scales. - Construction mixer / perforator with special attachments. - Tank for mixing the solution ( bucket 15-20L) .- Spatula (for removing excess solution) - Brush. - Table. - Rack.
What I saved on
I do not rent a room, I do all the work in a utility room at my summer cottage. Room area 20 sq. m., divided into a main room - 15 sq. m. and a separate one - 5 sq. m. In the main room, the solution is mixed and ebb, and in the small room there is a rack with shelves and a heater. Since a well with water was drilled in my dacha, the tiles are made both in summer and in winter.
To begin with, I bought 1 type of molds, not silicone, but plastic - 16 pcs. (for low tide 1 sq. m). Later I bought others. Plastic molds are designed for cement mortar, they are more durable, do not stretch and the tile hardens smoother at the edges than in silicone, and besides, they are cheaper.
I also saved on raw materials, instead of G-16 gypsum, I used G-5. The only difference is that G-5 has a brownish-pink tint and dotted black blotches. I did not use lime and plasticizer. Instead of silicone, I used dish detergent.
The table and rack were assembled together with my husband from sheets of plywood, timber and furniture corners. The drying trays were also cut out of plywood.
1. Gypsum G-5 25kg / bag - 6 pcs. (209 rubles / piece) - 1254 rubles. 6 pieces are enough for cooking 10 sq. m tiles
2. Plastic form "Stone" 4 in 1 - 14 pcs. (150 rubles / piece) - 2,100 rubles. 14 shapes of 4 tiles each equals one square meter
Sidewalk and rubber tiles are used as one of the main landscape design tools. It is quite easy to enter this market segment if you rely on high quality (first of all, durability). This means that the main goal is to cater to the tastes of small retail customers. A wide range of products and large volumes can be chased by large manufacturers, from whom the goods are bought by large stores or city administrations.
A mini-enterprise should impress its customers with high quality. Do not forget that private plots are not very large, so all the flaws are immediately visible. And the homeowners' requirements for the assortment are not as high as professional designers assume. In fact, the main thing for them is that the tiles do not break.
Technology for the production of paving slabs
The manufacturing technology of this material is simple, the business is seasonal. To determine the volume of production, it is advisable to first study the demand. You can sell such a product only in the vicinity of the place of manufacture, since the standards do not provide for transportation over distances exceeding 500 km.
Since it is worth producing tiles only in the warm season, any production facility, even a barn, will do.
Cost of main equipment:
- concrete mixer (90,000-100,000 rubles),
- vibrating table (34,000-35,000 rubles),
- plastic molds (25,000-27,000 rubles).
A 380V three-phase power supply is also required.
This means that the initial costs will amount to a little over 160,000 rubles. However, you will also need costs for raw materials, rent of premises, utilities, wages (if there are workers).
30 m2 of paving slabs can be produced in 8 hours.
To service a workshop producing 30m2 of tiles, two people without special education are needed. You will have to pay 15-20 thousand rubles for the work (each).
Due to the reasonable price and high quality, paving slabs have become one of the most popular building materials. It is used for the arrangement of streets and private territories. Every day the demand for the product is increasing, while there are not so many manufacturers of this material in the country. This is a great chance to start your own paving slab business. A well-written business plan will help you achieve great success in this activity.
Business advantages and disadvantages
Today, the production of paving slabs is considered the most promising and affordable direction. But like any other activity, this business has its advantages and disadvantages.
- a small budget;
- lack of a license (in accordance with federal law, paving slabs are classified as non-registration goods);
- simple production technology;
- ready sales market;
- good profitability and quick payback;
- no strict requirements for the premises.
The disadvantages of business include the following:
- a lot of competition;
- the need to comply with special storage conditions for tiles;
- constant searches for customers;
- loss of customers due to the manufacture of low-quality products (the reasons for the marriage can be both non-compliance with the production technology and the use of low-quality equipment).
Registration and documents
This business does not require special certificates. To open it, it is enough to register as an individual entrepreneur (IE). But if you plan to expand production in the future, then you should register an LLC (limited liability company).
You can contact specialized bodies and get there a document confirming the quality of your product.
The complete list of required documents looks like this:
Selection of technology for the production of paving slabs
Before starting your own business, you need to decide on the type of tile. The main difference lies in the production technology. At the moment, there are three ways to make paving slabs.
Where to start?
Key points related to the manufacture of paving products:
- Initially, you need to pick up a room. It can be about 80 m² in size. To start the production of tiles in small volumes, this is quite enough. If an entrepreneur plans to work all year round, then it is best to rent a warehouse. In it, in addition to the production area, it is necessary to place a chamber for drying tiles. Plus, there should be no fans in this room and it is advisable to install underfloor heating.
- You should also take care of communication. After all, water is needed in large volumes. It is also advisable to take into account that at first you will start loading and unloading goods manually. And the temperature, in any weather, should not be lower than + 15C.
- From special documentation, the entrepreneur will need certificates stating that the tile meets the accepted GOST standards at the time of water absorption, frost resistance, compression. This requires from 3 to 10 thousand rubles. A product quality passport can be made at will. No additional licenses for the production of paving slabs are required.
- The third step is to determine the technology for manufacturing products.
It can be of two types:
- Vibrocompression allows us to make better products. Paving slabs will have higher frost resistance, low water absorption rates. Plus, it will become more durable. Of the minuses, only the high price of the equipment stands out;
- Manufacturing with the "vibration casting" technology is more suitable for small businesses, since it has a low cost of equipment - 27 thousand rubles. It features a smooth surface. The performance is also high.
It is also necessary to decide what kind of tiles will be produced. They are divided into three types:
- Classic. These are the most common concrete slabs and come in a variety of colors. The structure can be smooth or with a variety of patterns, such as stars or lines;
- Plastic tiles. It is more durable and does not form cement dust. Plus, the color does not change and does not fade throughout the life. It is advisable to install it on production premises;
- Rubber tiles. She can be seen on sports grounds. It is made from car tires. Considering that its surface is rough and does not slip, it can also be installed next to swimming pools, as its structure ensures better grip on shoes. This is a new technology that is gaining popularity.
Material preparation and production
Preparation includes several parameters that need to be studied well. After all, the business does not contain trifles:
- Particular attention is paid to the preparation of molds for the production of tiles. They must be treated with a special compound. You can do it yourself, but it is better to purchase a ready-made one. It should be noted that processing with petroleum products is prohibited. It is best to use emulsol. Application can be either with a brush or by spraying. It is possible to use forms without processing, but then you need to cover them with an antistatic agent. After using the mold, it is necessary to treat with a 7-10% solution of hydrochloric acid;
- The composition for pouring must also be carefully calculated. For the production of composition for paving products, there are standards for the ratio of cement, sand, crushed stone, filler, water. If you need to make colored tiles, then a dye is added to the finished mixture. If the products are made in two colors, then the entrepreneur will need two concrete mixers. Dye is not added to one of them, the desired color is added to the second;
- At the third stage of the production of paving slabs, the molds are poured with a ready-made composition and compacted using a vibrating table or ejection pulses;
- Next stage production is drying. When dried in natural conditions, they are placed on the floor or shelves. If hot steam drying technology is used, then it is necessary to purchase special containers for this. To prevent excess moisture from evaporating, the molds are covered with foil. The time it takes to dry the tiles is approximately 24 hours;
- To remove the product from the mold, you need to purchase a special vibrating table. For better extraction, molds with tiles are placed briefly in hot water at a temperature of about 50 ° C;
- The finished product is wrapped with stretch film. Further, the tiles can be transported for subsequent sale or storage.
Understanding production technology will help make your business as profitable as possible.
- The concrete mixer used to make the base of the product. The cost of one concrete mixer starts from 10 thousand rubles;
- Mortar mixer. It is needed to apply a textured layer to the base;
- A vibrating press with molds will cost around 680 thousand rubles;
- A vibrating table, dimensions - 180x80x80, will cost from 27 thousand rubles .;
- The table for deforming will cost 17 thousand rubles;
- Packaging equipment. Its price is from 3 thousand rubles;
- Forms for filling cost from 35 rubles. a piece. Here you need to know that they differ not only in price, but also in the number of uses. Polyurethane forms are considered the most short-lived. They can be used for no more than 100 fills. Plastic can be used longer - 250 fillings. Rubber molds can be filled with mortar up to 500 times;
- Racks and pallets must also be prepared.
Paving slabs have long established themselves as a versatile road surface. Now it is simply impossible to imagine its absence on the territory adjacent to shopping centers, offices, hotels, hospitals and private estates.
Various materials are used for covering both large areas and small garden paths. Previously, the most common of these was stone. Now the variety of types suggests a wide range of coatings, up to rubber and wood. Such variations of individual design solutions are rare, the leading position in this segment is firmly held by vibropressed paving stones.
Industrial production of paving stones in factories
Three types of paving stones are produced at large enterprises.
Stone, it is granite
The production of such a tile implies mechanical processing of the material. That is, the products are made using special sawing machines. According to the technology of the mixture, modifying components are not used, which guarantees the environmental friendliness of the product.
Granite paving stones produced in factories are usually square or rectangular in shape. The edges of such tiles are processed, making them even and smooth. Chipped paving stones are produced on a much smaller scale. Its elements are not aligned to the edges and are not sanded, which gives the product the most natural look. Such tiles are often used to decorate not only road surfaces, but also walls.
This tile, like a regular clinker, is in many ways similar to a brick. Its distinctive feature is its increased strength, which is achieved through the use of special types of clay and a special firing technique. The emphasis in the manufacture of clinker paving stones is not made on the compaction of the material. The key point in production is the firing technique.
At the first stage of the manufacturing process, the crushed raw material is turned into a solution and extruded into molds through an extruder. In the next step, the filled forms are transferred to special chambers, in which the prepared mass is evenly heated from all sides. Finally, the products that have undergone primary heat treatment are sent to the kilns for firing. Due to the high temperature (up to 1200 ° C), clinker paving stones become very durable.