LED production as a business: a list of equipment, a description of production technology, the nuances of business organization
Contents of the article:
The production of luminaires requires the correct execution of the necessary documentation. Keep in mind that this process will take up to 4 weeks, and will cost about 14,000 rubles. We described detailed instructions for registering an LLC here.
Choosing a direction
LED lamp is a lighting device that uses LEDs as a light source.
The resulting lighting has many benefits:
- safety of use (no mercury);
- economy (energy saving reaches 60 - 90%);
- long service life (up to 5 years), which is 40-50 times longer than a regular light bulb will last;
- low heat transfer (they hardly heat up).
Experts in the field report that despite the already existing popularity of LED lamps, a global increase in demand is still ahead.
The business plan for the production of lighting fixtures has a point on the sale of products. When launching your business, make yourself known. Give various advertisements for your products. Focus on domestic production and high quality.
Stages of plant opening
- high demand for products;
- customer acquisition among solar panel manufacturers if you use LEDs;
- stable income without seasonal influences.
- competition with Chinese manufacturers;
- strict personnel selection, which is associated with high-tech production.
Due to the ban on the production of conventional incandescent lamps, the demand for LEDs has increased. While this niche in the market is not too busy, which means there is a chance to successfully join this business. So, the production of LED lamps is not only a demanded business, but also a profitable one. Moreover, its popularity is just gaining momentum.
According to experts, the development of this type of business is still ahead. If you start it now, then there is a chance to earn a reputation for yourself, build a clientele, not "burn out".
At the initial stage, you will have to invest, but it's worth it. Moreover, it pays off quickly. LED lighting is safe, relevant and necessary for the population. Moreover, the service life of one lamp is about 3-5 years. The cost of one such lamp will be cheaper for people than buying "Ilyich's lamps". LEDs are safe for health, do not contain mercury (as, for example, in fluorescent lamps), save energy. It is important to draw up a detailed business plan, study your competitors, purchase good and high-quality equipment. You will not be able to save on the latter, because in the end you can get products that are worse in quality than the Chinese ones. You need to focus on quality over quantity.
Business organization requires properly collected and executed documentation. One cannot count on help from the state, because it almost does not support this type of business. It can take 2 to 4 weeks to collect documents. In terms of money, this is about 10-15 thousand, it all depends on the region. In the middle lane it is cheaper than in the north or south.
Of course, you also need a room. Its size cannot be less than 3 thousand squares. At the same time, those shops where the lamps themselves will be assembled must have a good ventilation system. The production of LED luminaires can be of two types: assembly from finished material (which is produced by third parties), assembly from scratch. The latter option requires skill from workers, knowledge in this area and dexterity. Hand assembly for medium-sized production requires at least 20 workers. It is necessary to organize jobs for them. If you prefer an assembly of semi-finished elements, then you will have to pay a round sum for their purchase (about 600 thousand rubles, in bulk).
You can also purchase the necessary equipment that will provide machine assembly. Then you only need a couple of people who will monitor the operation of the devices. The cost of special equipment ranges from 100 to 600 thousand rubles.
The salary of employees cannot be less than 15 thousand rubles. Otherwise, no one will simply work for you, leaving for competitors.
The equipment will require devices that will provide all stages of work. These are: the creation of special chips, their fasteners, the selection of the case for each detail, the assembly of the final product.
The production of LED luminaires requires skill and experience. And yet, compared to China, your production will be more costly. This means that the quality of your products cannot be just good, only high. Otherwise, the profit will be minimal (if at all).
In addition, you will have to purchase consumables. You can buy it from domestic manufacturers or from foreign suppliers. Domestic products are not inferior in quality, especially since the price of the material is not too high. At the initial stage, you will have to shell out about 100-500 thousand rubles.
- documents and premises;
- hiring labor;
There are a huge number of factories and production mini-workshops in Russia. They cover most of the demand from the population. However, there are narrow areas in which there is no serious competition. For example, in the production of LED lamps. Almost all lamas come from China. They do not always have the required quality level. This minus of imported products can be turned as a plus for your own business.
The first thing to do is to write down all the steps on paper. To set up a business for the production and sale of finished LED products will require from 500,000 to 1 million US dollars. The final amount will depend on a number of factors:
The average payback of an LED business takes 1 to 2 years. It is important to take into account that with an increase in the productivity of the workshop, the number of working personnel will increase. As a consequence, you will need a larger payroll.
If all production and business processes are properly established, then such production can generate income from 20% to 30% of turnover, taking into account taxes and other expenses. To conduct business, you will need official registration with the tax authorities. You will also need to obtain the necessary production certificates.
Legal and Certification
To register a business, it is enough to register as an individual entrepreneur (IE). This is a level for a small enterprise or workshop if you plan to supply LEDs to your region or work with several large contractors.
Going to the federal scale is possible only if a legal entity is registered. In the case of the production of LED products, you can register "LLC" (Limited Liability Company). However, do not forget that since 2021, the founder of the organization bears some of the risks. Therefore, it is important to clearly calculate the business plan for 2-3 years in advance, in all possible scenarios.
It is best to immediately register a company with a large registered capital, as this will give more opportunities to work with different companies and wholesale suppliers. To do this, you will need to collect the documentation with which you go to the tax authority:
- Application in the form of Р11001;
- Application (decision) of the main founder on the establishment of a limited liability company. If there are several founders, you will need to draw up a minutes of the meeting of participants;
- Receipts for payment of state fees.
You will also need to pay: state duty (4,000 rubles), authorized capital (from 10,000 rubles), notary services, creating a company seal (from 2,000 rubles), opening a bank account (at on average from 10,000 rubles).
In the tax authority, the organization will assign OKVED to conduct business. In the case of LED products, this is # 27. ... After registering with the tax service, you must submit an appeal to the fire and sanitary and epidemiological service. The supervisory authorities must issue permits for the workshop or work area where the finished product will be assembled.
It should be noted that LED lighting has appeared quite recently, but has already managed to gain widespread popularity due to its economy and many different functions. In addition, state authorities have issued a special law, according to which the use of certain types of incandescent lamps with a power of 25W is prohibited. Considering both factors, there will always be a need for such a product on the market. Well, for the success of such a case, it will be necessary to draw up a detailed plan of action.
- Analysis of the legal framework;
- Preparation of the necessary documents for starting a business;
- Registration of your case with state authorities.
At the first stage, write down everything related to the forms of activity of any business. In this case, the most profitable are "LLC" and "IP" or a limited liability company and individual entrepreneurship. The rest of the forms in this situation will not be appropriate, so do not focus on them.
After studying the basic concepts, you can start preparing the list of documents for registration. Here you can track on many legal sites the charter forms, minutes of the meeting of the founders, and on the sites of local authorities you can find registration application forms. Most often these are blank forms that you can fill out according to the sample. Now that everything is ready, we sign, put the date and certify it all with a notary. We pay the state fee and go to the local government registration authority to open our own business. The registration itself consists in entering information about your company, its location in the registries and this procedure takes only a couple of minutes. But huge queues, poor work of administrators, and a lack of technology often turn such a process into long torments. At the same time, experts are very fond of talking in terms incomprehensible to an ordinary person, without explaining their essence.
In other words, you need to arm yourself with a dozen patience in order to do everything as required by the law, or simply write a power of attorney authorizing a lawyer to perform such work and start immediately looking for equipment, warehouses, personnel and advertising opportunities ...
Equipment and premises for business
With a small budget, it is enough to purchase:
- Soldering iron ;
- Boards ;
- Chips ;
All this is available on the Internet, as well as packaging for reliable transportation.
Storage is simple - dry and light. Other indicators, such as appearance and other requirements, are optional. Find a convenient warehouse for storing and assembling goods and arrange a lease in order to avoid unnecessary costs. The area of such a place must be at least 3500 sq. ... Do not forget about the stand and showroom to check and demonstrate the goods.
Promotion of the idea
LED lamps and luminaires are rapidly gaining leading positions in the lighting market. Despite the relatively high cost, they are in high demand among consumers, since they not only provide energy savings, but also significantly improve the quality of lighting, and also allow implementing unique design solutions in the interior. In Russia, the production of LEDs is only gaining momentum, but due to the too high entry threshold and very complex technology, such a business is not available to everyone. Therefore, for organizing your own enterprise, the production of LED lamps and partial-cycle lamps using ready-made chips is more suitable.
A full cycle of LED production begins with growing crystals. This process is the most difficult and expensive to implement. The main difficulties are associated with the need to solve the following tasks:
- purchasing equipment that costs millions of dollars;
- hiring highly qualified specialists with a narrow specialization with high salaries;
- creating appropriate conditions for crystal growth (first of all - absolute purity).
In this case, the duration of crystal growth until the required parameters are reached will be several years. In addition, there are many more subtleties of this technology, which are carefully hidden by each manufacturer. Therefore, the production of LEDs from scratch can only be discussed in general terms. Premises and where to look for staff
To organize an enterprise of any size, you need a building with three separate zones:
- production (with 1-3 workshops, depending on the completeness of the cycle);
- warehouse (separately for raw materials and finished products);
- administrative (including office and back rooms).
Especially carefully it is necessary to equip the room where LEDs will be produced. Depending on the number of technological lines to be installed, it will require a space of 300–2021 sq. M. m. The main requirement is perfect cleanliness in the room where crystals will be grown and / or processed.
In the shop for the manufacture of cases and assembly of finished products, you need to equip high-quality ventilation. All zones must have the necessary communication systems - water supply, sewerage, heating.
There are no requirements for the location of the enterprise. Production is not classified as harmful, therefore it can be located within the city. The most advantageous location is considered to be in an industrial area or on the outskirts, where it is easier to find suitable premises and the rent will be lower. At the same time, one should take into account good transport accessibility, the presence of a convenient entrance and parking for cars.
An enterprise with one production line producing an average of 1000 LEDs per shift would require a staff of 10:
- accountant ;
- supply and sales manager;
- lighting engineers - 2 persons ;
- specialists in the assembly shop - 2 people;
- handymen - 2 people;
- cleaning lady.
The issue of personnel selection in this industry is quite acute, since a unique and rather complex technology requires highly qualified lighting engineers. Today, this is a rather rare profession, therefore, it is recommended to select the necessary specialists among graduates of educational institutions of the corresponding profile. In Russia, several universities are engaged in such training, including: