Diy glass concrete making technologies
Traditionally, concrete is used as the main building material. We are used to this, and not always, having conceived a new project, we study modern developments. Concrete is familiar and accessible. But there are situations in which it is worth paying attention to new items in the construction industry. These rightfully include glass concrete (glass-filled composite), a distinctive feature of which is increased tensile strength. This makes concrete structures much stronger. But, in order to figure out which version of glass concrete should be chosen, check out the distinctive features of each type.
Depending on the form in which the composition is modified with glass, glass concrete is of the following types:
- glass-reinforced concrete;
- composition with the addition of liquid glass;
Glass concrete is a very flexible, resilient and highly durable material, which, while remaining concrete, is nevertheless unusually light
Due to the use of special fillers, glass concrete is superior to traditional concrete. Main advantages:
- Reduced weight, since the main fillers - cement, fiberglass, sand, are mixed in equal proportions.
- Increased strength, since the glass-filled composite is characterized by increased resistance to deformation, and the parameters of impact resistance are fifteen times higher than the characteristics of a concrete solution.
- Expanded scope and wide range of products made of glass-filled concrete.
- A significant number of possible additives that affect the characteristics in many ways.
Fiberglass reinforced concrete is essentially similar to reinforced concrete. It uses fiberglass reinforcement instead of metal. Based on this difference, the advantages are clearly visible:
- increased thermal insulation;
An alternative to concrete is glass concrete, which has greater strength, frost resistance and thermal conductivity
The market of finishing materials in Russia continues to develop actively. In 2021, despite the economic crisis, the volume of demand for them increased by 5.7%. New products appear in this segment. One of them is flexible stone (flexible or soft brick). It is a reliable and inexpensive material that can significantly update and improve the design of the room.
The flexible stone business promises a good profit for entrepreneurs, since the material has a low cost. Here we will present a detailed business plan for organizing a business, consider what is important to consider for a successful start, and give approximate calculations of payback.
Stone properties and scope
Flexible stone is an elastic building material of small thickness that repeats the texture of natural stone.
Produced as wallpaper or tiles. The thickness of the canvas is 3-10 mm, which makes it very convenient for decorating rooms. Flexible stone is available in different colors and textures. It is used for finishing facades, fences, interior and exterior details, in landscape design. Its other name is front thermal panels.
The material has good technical characteristics. The service life is up to 35 years, it can withstand temperatures of -30-650 ° C (does not burn), has a light weight, is very flexible and easy to install. Resistant to environmental influences, harmless to humans.
Flexible stone: production technology
The industrial production of stone does not require special skills. True, the services of a technologist will be required who can create a high-quality product, organize the technological process. However, there are no special requirements for ordinary workers in the workshop.
Low labor costs and low cost of goods are important advantages of this business.
Building material can be created using 2 technologies. The first is suitable for people who do not plan to invest heavily in business, the second is needed for those who are ready to invest serious money in business. Let's take a look at each of the technologies below.
Standard (classic) technology
Glass concrete was developed about half a century ago and is currently a real competitor to reinforced concrete. Glass added to the concrete mass can significantly improve performance, incl. tensile and flexural strength, eliminating heavy structures. Such reinforcement expands the possibilities of using concrete in adverse conditions.
Glass concrete is a fairly extensive group of building materials in the form of concrete with glass or fiberglass fibers. Depending on the structure of the glass component and the method of its introduction, there are main varieties of this material.
- Glass-reinforced concrete or composite concrete. In fact, it is reinforced concrete, in which steel reinforcement is replaced by fiberglass.
- Waterproof concrete with silicate additive in the form of liquid glass.
- Glass fiber reinforced concrete containing alkali resistant glass fiber as a filler.
- Glass-optic concrete or Litracon, characterized by relative transparency (translucent) due to the introduction of glass optical fibers.
- A mixture with filling in the form of glass chips (battle).
- Acid-resistant concrete in which the glass component added to the mortar acts as a binder.
In all of these varieties, concrete contains glass in one form or another. As a result, the structure of the material and its most important characteristics change. Fiberglass concrete is sold ready-made and can be made by hand.
Pros and Cons
- Weight loss. With the introduction of glass filler, the content of cement and sand decreases, and so on. fiberglass is lighter than these ingredients, the weight of the starting material is reduced. This advantage is especially noticeable in the reinforced version designed to replace reinforced concrete. Fiberglass reinforcement is significantly lighter than steel reinforcement.
- Strength increase. Glass additives significantly increase tensile strength (2.5 - 3 times), compression and bending. The impact strength of concrete increases by 14-16 times.
- Thickness reduction when replacing concrete products. Reinforcing glass fibers have a smaller diameter compared to steel reinforcement with a similar strength, which allows you to reduce the thickness of the product without deteriorating the strength characteristics.
- Moisture - and water resistance. Any glass fillers (especially liquid glass) increase the water resistance of concrete.
- Improvement of thermal insulation performance.
- Expansion of areas of application of the material. Glass filling makes it a versatile building material with increased strength, waterproofing and thermal insulation characteristics.
Glass concrete has practically no significant drawbacks. Of course, the need to prepare a glass ingredient complicates the technology for preparing a solution, but the advantages obtained compensate for this disadvantage. In the process of preparing the material, one has to deal with glass dust, which requires careful protection of the human respiratory system. Accelerated solidification of glass concrete in the process of application is noted, which requires rapid use of the solution.
- Waterproof. For manufacturing, liquid glass is used, i.e. sodium silicate. First, an ordinary concrete solution is prepared. Then, liquid glass is added to it at the rate of 100 ml per 1 liter of solution (excluding water). It is important to remember that an increase in the amount of sodium silicate leads to an increase in the brittleness of the material and a rapid solidification of the solution.
- Production of glass fiber reinforced concrete. Composition - cement, sand and fiberglass in equal proportions. It is important to distribute the fiber evenly throughout the volume, and the ingredients are mixed in a dry state. When applying the solution, a thorough vibration compaction is required.
- Filling with glass break. Broken glass replaces crushed stone (from 25 to 100 percent), as well as partly sand. Concrete production includes several stages. First, the glass waste (scrap) is crushed. Then, with the help of a screen, the raw material is sifted and separated into fractions. Fragments larger than 4 mm are intended to replace crushed stone (filler). Smaller particles will work in place of sand. This circumstance is taken into account when mixing the solution.
- Using glass as a binder. In this case, finely crushed glass is used, but it will not bind cement without additional processing. Glass performs this function with the introduction of soda ash. During the reaction, it dissolves to form a silicate gel, and it already holds the composition together. This produces concrete with increased resistance to acids.
Concrete with optical properties is difficult to make on your own due to the increased fragility of optical fibers. Usually, ready-made concrete, translucent slabs and panels are used.
Hello dear readers of the mlnrub blog. u. Today the blog has a very interesting idea in the field of production, namely the production of transparent concrete. The Illuminart company, located in the Kirov region, produces unique concrete. Its peculiarity lies in the ability to transmit light rays.
How to make concrete transparent ?! Production technology
For the first time, the idea of combining concrete and fiber optic was voiced by an architect from Hungary, Aron Losonczi. The resulting building material was later patented and named "litracon". Transparency was achieved by combining fiber optic filaments used for laying telecommunications networks with fine-grained cement.
Clear silhouettes of objects and people can be seen through the litracon. In appearance, it looks more like marble or granite than a concrete slab. The first sample was released in 2021. Over time, this technology has gained popularity all over the world. Russia is no exception. It was a company from the Kirov region that became the first to start the production of this decorative material.
The manufacturer says that the most difficult thing in the production of transparent concrete is working with fiber optic fibers. In small volumes, manual stacking is allowed, but for large volumes, automated machines are needed.
History of transparent concrete production in Russia
The production of transparent concrete started in 2021, but the company's management faced a number of difficulties. The product turned out to be in little demand among city residents. But in 2021, everything changed after the technology was told in one of the television programs. The glory of translucent concrete has reached Moscow. Illuminart's revenues for 3 months of 2021 jumped several times. The press named the sum of 5 million rubles. This is not surprising, since the cost of this building material is much higher than that of conventional concrete. This is due to the fact that the technology of its manufacture implies the addition of impurities to the composition. The lack of competition also played a role.
Who buys transparent concrete ?!
First of all, transparent concrete was developed for developers, but the main clients turned out to be representatives of the entertainment industry. Very often this material is used for the construction of bar counters, the creation of decorative lamps, etc. It can also be used to create illuminated stairs and use it as a material for both interior and exterior decoration of premises.
This material can be found on the market in the form of blocks with dimensions of 1200x400 mm (LxH). The cost per square meter of such a slab depends on its thickness and is in the range of 1900-39000 rubles.
A bit of history
On the one hand, there is concrete that causes pollution, in particular due to the cement used in its composition. On the other hand, there is glass waste that can be completely recycled using a complex and costly process. The decision to put glass in concrete was proposed by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation after a series of studies published in October 2021.
Concrete is one of the most widely used building materials in the world. In the US, where the study was conducted, 600 million tonnes of concrete were produced in 2021. However, it is one of the materials with the greatest negative environmental impact due to the cement used to make it.
To reduce carbon emissions, the concrete industry has started using two main substitutes for cement: ash from coal combustion and slag, a by-product of steel production. These substitutes have reduced carbon emissions from 25 to 40% per ton of concrete, increased strength and reduced costs.
But these replacements are not ideal: they contain heavy metals - mercury, which makes them potentially toxic. Producers and users continue to depend on fossil fuels: “As more and more companies try to reduce their carbon footprint and use renewable energy, the use of fossil fuel by-products in their factories is increasingly viewed as counterintuitive and controversial.” by Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Ph.D.
At the same time, solving the glass waste problem is becoming more and more problematic. Americans fail to reuse glass after consumption - 11 million tons per year. Only one third is recycled and the rest goes straight to landfills. Although glass is 100% recyclable, the study says more American cities are abandoning their recycling programs - mainly for financial reasons: sorting glass is difficult and costly.
General description and classification
So, if an increased seismic hazard is observed in the area of the building, then it is necessary to increase the total footage and diameter of the reinforcement, as well as reduce the distance of its binding. If the soil moisture at the site of the future building is too high, it will be necessary to increase the layer of concrete near the reinforcement, slowing down the corrosion. In some cases, such problems are solved by replacing the design material with another, which has more convenient and beneficial characteristics. It is possible to make construction cheaper due to equal replacement of building materials with more budgetary ones.
For example, an alternative option for an expensive foundation by increasing the amount can be the use of glass concrete. However, it is worth paying attention to the fact that it includes a huge group of building materials that differ in properties, so you need to be able to understand their classification and characteristics of various types. You will also have to familiarize yourself with the strengths and weaknesses of concrete before deciding on a particular type.
Each type of glass concrete has its own properties and characteristics. Depending on this, it is worth making a start when choosing a building material.
Glass Reinforced Concrete