Acquisition of a mini-foundry - a ready-made business with a quick start
Being one of the most ancient technologies for processing materials, casting still does not lose its relevance. New processes and equipment are being designed, methods of improving their environmental friendliness and accuracy are being improved.
Essence and Basics
In foundries, products are obtained by melting the starting material, then pouring it into a mold, and then solidifying. Foundries produce a wide range of products: from engine components to various containers for the food industry. All products are obtained by casting from cast iron, up to half of aluminum parts, up to 20% of steel products, etc.
All foundry technologies are based on the concept of fluidity, when a material heated to a temperature higher than its melting point turns into a highly viscous liquid. In this case, the effect of the continuity of its flow in the required direction must be observed. This makes it possible to form, in the process of solidification of the melt, the required blanks.
All casting metals have a complex structure, therefore fluidity is influenced by:
- Surface tension.
- The nature of the surface oxide film.
- The presence, content and composition of inclusions.
- Solidification method.
- The chemical composition of the base material.
- Physical and mechanical characteristics, first of all, specific gravity and melting point.
The fluidity is established according to the results of chemical analyzes and technological samples in relation to a specific casting material.
If earlier the process of liquid metal flow was poorly controlled, which led to various casting defects - uneven structure of the final product and porosity, now the situation has changed. In order to produce castings with optimal quality and minimize production costs, computer modeling processes have been mastered, as a result of which the flow rate and the presence of various cooling effects can be predicted. They are the reason for the porosity of the cast product.
3-D modeling allows you to adjust:
- Melt viscosity;
- Cooling intensity;
- Degree of porosity.
The spatial model of the casting, developed by the technologist, taking into account the above factors, allows even at the stage of technology design to optimize the design of the part (ensuring its optimal configuration), design the casting equipment, and create the best sequence of operations.
Technology of foundry production of ferrous and non-ferrous metals
The foundry properties of materials take into account not only fluidity, but also the decrease in volume that occurs during the cooling of the casting. This phenomenon is called shrinkage; it is 1 ... 3% of the original size. Since all metals are anisotropic *, they distinguish between linear and volumetric shrinkage, which determine the final balance of the metal. The first parameter is important for castings with an increased length to width ratio, and the second is important for castings with complex shapes.
Manufacturing of aluminum products: advantages and disadvantages of products + 4 stages of launching a full-scale business in the production of aluminum products for household use + 3 steps for organizing household chores on decorative aluminum products.
Today it is difficult to find a business that will bring consistently high income regardless of the situation in the country, but if you analyze the market in this aspect, then the best solution would be to turn to ideas from the construction direction.
In today's article we will tell you about the production of aluminum products for industrial and decorative purposes + we will provide brief instructions for starting a business from scratch.
Relevance of the aluminum business
Aluminum is a silver-white metal, which is the most common among its group on the planet. Its overall rating in the top of the championship is 3rd place and 8% of the composition of the earth's crust.
Advantages of aluminum products Material disadvantages High margin of safety with resistance to corrosion processes. The list for aluminum alloys is higher than metal ones, which imposes limits on construction purchases. Light weight, which does not affect the seismic resistance of aluminum alloys. increased margin of resistance to fire and admissible high temperatures for structures made of alloys based on aluminum. A high coefficient of expansion will require more careful design of expansion joints during construction work, and a low modulus of elasticity increases the risk of deflection. ability to resist shock loading. There is no risk of sparks. Deposits with bauxite, from which the metal is produced, is considered one of the heavily depleted sources of raw materials. Given the distribution of the element in the earth's crust, the conclusion is quite logical. Electrochemical corrosion will require isolation of the contact points of the element with other metals The service life of aluminum-based alloys is more than 80 years.
Due to the absence of heavy metals and resistance to ultraviolet radiation, the element is considered to be environmentally friendly. And its property of preserving the original characteristics during processing makes it possible to use a circular recycling scheme.
Applications of aluminum:
- equipment in the aviation industry;
- as a combustible component of rocket fuel;
- hull and decks of ships;
- wiring in electronics;
- building frames, ladders, etc.;
- tanks, carriage frames and other details in the railway;
- auto parts;
- household products.
They do not hesitate to use aluminum as a decor. Due to its elasticity and flexibility, making elements of art from this material, if we take into account the group of metals, is very simple. Next, we will touch on both industrial and decorative purposes of the element in question.
Manufacture of household aluminum products
Before the impromptu start, I watched a lot of videos and read a lot of literature on this topic. Which I recommend to everyone who wants to do metal casting. Before starting to practice, you need to understand the theory.
Lil from the beginning all sorts of trinkets, then more. In the end, I decided to cast a sign on the fence - "BEWARE EVIL DOG" which somehow caught my eye on the Internet.
Tracing paper from the screen, a lot of painstaking work and not a very good result. The only people who liked my product were local comrades without a definite place of residence and occupation, who simply tore it off for scrap.
I thought for a long time how to make a good, high-quality matrix and remembered about a 3D printer. I won't say that mastering this mechanism and studying the design program was very easy for me, but now, in all honesty, I can say that it is quite within the power of an ordinary person. There would be a desire.
And then there is an unlimited flight of imagination.
You can cast a lot of useful things that people are happy to buy.
Signs "BEWARE EVIL DOG" or "VIDEO SURVEILLANCE"
Signs "CAFES, BARS, OFFICES", etc.
This is not a complete list of what can be made. You can even cast molds for casting lead products (sinkers, car weights, battery terminals, etc., etc.)
I even came across a video where a comrade from Kenya is pouring dishes on his knee quite professionally.
I certainly did not plan to pour the dishes, but the issue of making all kinds of plates and molds for casting lead products interested me very much.
What is metal casting and how you can make money on it
Casting is one of the ways to process various metals. It can be used to create items of different sizes and configurations. This is the simplest and most affordable method, which is carried out using special equipment. Now many manufacturers offer turnkey construction of a mini-plant.
This means that an individual project of the production complex will be developed, the layout of the workshops, the placement of equipment, the summing up of all the necessary communications.
Why is it beneficial to pay attention to turnkey ready-made complexes? Because:
If the choice is made in favor of such a complex, then the next step in organizing a business will be to search for customers. Cast metal products are in great demand in almost all industries:
A mini-plant is an automated complex: to switch to a new type of manufactured products or metal blanks, you just need to make changes to the software package and make new molds. And the cost of non-standard parts for an individual order is several times higher than a typical production.
Another advantage of turnkey mini-factories is that they are designed so that they can process all types of metals, while large-scale lines have separate shops for this.
What types of metal can be used for work
Casting equipment can be used to produce parts and blanks from the following types of metal:
Steel is the most common metal used in various parts. The production equipment can process metal of the following grades:
The chemical composition of cast iron is close to that of steel, but differs from it in an increased, more than 2%, carbon content. It also contains silicon, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur.
At the next stage of the process, with an increase in the melting temperature and removal of impurities from it, steel is obtained. For this, about 85% of the total cast iron is used.
Due to these circumstances, it is much cheaper than steel.
The high carbon content makes cast iron brittle and vulnerable to shock. But at the same time, it has great compression stability.
Due to its structure, products made of this material are not susceptible to damage to their surface and such damage does not lead to deformation or destruction of the entire product as a whole.
These properties make it easier to cut cast iron than steel, especially when machining on a lathe.
Therefore, it is often used for the manufacture of parts of various devices that are not subjected to shock and tensile effects.
The history of industrial pig iron production in Russia goes back almost 300 years. In the 20th century, the USSR ranked first in the world in iron and steel smelting. During this time, the gross production of ferrous metals in Russia, together with Ukraine, reached 153 million tons.
After the collapse of the USSR, smelting fell by more than half. In 2021, 68.5 million tons were smelted in Russia. Now, Russia is the fourth in the ranking of black steel producers after China, Japan and the United States.
The peculiarity of the current state of affairs in the iron foundry industry in Russia is that it mostly works for export, producing pig iron mainly in the form of ingots, sent abroad for further processing.
As a result, there is a situation when in Russia, despite the large volume of gross production of cast iron, there is a constant shortage of finished products from foundry iron.