A set of equipment required for the production of alcohol
Ethanol-based drinks have been popular for a long time. In Russia, moonshine was distilled in a variety of ways, some of which are still used today. There are also more advanced methods, there is modern equipment.
Currently, the production and sale of alcoholic beverages are not banned by the state. They are available to anyone.
What is ethanol
Ethanol is a monohydric ethyl alcohol known from chemistry with the formula C2H5OH.
As part of alcoholic beverages, it is a psychoactive substance that has a depressing effect on the human central nervous system.
Ethyl alcohol is also used in alcohol thermometers, as a solvent, as a disinfectant, in the manufacture of cosmetics.
How ethanol is formed
Ethyl alcohol is obtained from the fermentation of foods containing carbohydrates under the influence of yeast and bacteria. The ethanol content in the resulting solution (brew) does not exceed 15%, at a higher concentration the yeast dies.
To increase the concentration of ethanol and purify it, distillation is carried out - evaporation of alcoholic liquid and cooling of vapors in order to condense them.
Any food product containing sugar or starch can be used as raw material for mash production. The more sugar or starch the product contains, the denser the mash turns out, and the more alcohol you can get from it.
The largest alcohol yield comes from sugar, then decreases:
- wheat ;
- syrup ;
- sugar beets;
Alcoholic products have been in high demand at all times, even at the time of the strictest ban on their use. At the same time, the popularity of alcoholic beverages does not decrease even with a general drop in the level of income of the population. For this reason, the launch of a new commercial project related to the production and bottling of wines, cognacs and vodka is guaranteed to become a profitable business, subject to the preliminary drawing up of a business plan that takes into account all the features of the project implementation in specific conditions and for a specific market sector.
Before opening your own mini-plant for the production and bottling of alcoholic beverages, you must go through the registration procedure, having received a certificate of assignment to the plant as a legal entity - LLC. In the process of registering an organization, a certain OKVED code must be assigned.
Since the products manufactured at such a plant are classified as alcoholic beverages, it is necessary to obtain an appropriate license to carry out commercial activities on full rights.
If the production of vodka is planned at the mini-factory, then you must carefully familiarize yourself with the state and international standards for the production of these alcoholic beverages. In addition, it is required to issue a declaration and a voluntary certificate of conformity.
You should carefully and deliberately choose the building in which the mini-factory will be located. The building of the plant must include at least 2 premises - the production area itself and the finished product warehouse. Ideally, the area of the plant should be about 2,000 square meters. meters, however, to start activities in this area, the production facility can be located on much more modest areas (at least 100 square meters. meters).
Despite the fact that each manufacturer seeks to invent its own secret of purification and filtration of alcohol-containing beverages, the manufacturing technology remains practically unchanged.
For this reason, the following (common to all) settings are used to equip the production line for the production of alcoholic beverages:
- pasteurizer ;
- reservoir - 3 units;
- bottle washing machine;
- filling and packaging machine;
- device for applying labels and excise stamps;
- additional equipment.
Additional equipment may include:
Readers of the blog under the age of 30, most likely, do not remember the time when alcohol production was exclusively the prerogative of the state. Any attempts to "break off" this "monopoly pie" were followed by inevitable criminal liability. Now, formally, of course, this area is open to anyone who wishes. Pay excise taxes, duties, get a license, buy equipment that meets GOST standards, and produce as much alcohol as you want.
Brief analysis of the business: Costs of organizing a business: 350,000 - 1,500,000 rubles Relevant for cities with a population: no restrictions Situation in the industry: the sphere of production is developed Complexity of organizing a business: 4/5 Payback: from 3 to 6 months
Everything seems to be smooth. In reality, everything is much more complicated. The production of ethyl alcohol, which is just used in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages, is such a "tasty morsel" that brings in huge profits that large manufacturers who have been working in this market for decades and have good "tricks" will not give you to enter this business just like that. in the appropriate structures.
However, you can work quite calmly until a certain moment, until the volume of production exceeds the level when your mini-alcohol plant does not turn from a small enterprise into a serious threat to competition. These are the realities of today, which you are unlikely to be told in other sources.
But! First, as the great commander Suvorov said: "The courage of the city takes", that is. if you take a fairly tough position, in the future you can still reach a fairly high profit threshold and promote your brand. And secondly, there are also positive aspects, which are that alcohol production will still allow you to earn your first million dollars. Of course, if everything is done correctly.
A bit of chemistry: the famous formula C2H5OH is ethyl alcohol. The formula of methyl (technical) alcohol is CH3OH.
Before we start
An entrepreneur planning to organize the production of alcohol must at least have a general understanding of technology. You can hire a specialist, but it is impossible to organize a profitable enterprise without minimal knowledge and understanding of the essence of this direction.
The most important condition for success is a well-established alcohol distribution. Research the demand in your area. The payment of the excise tax significantly reduces the income of the manufacturer; the transportation of products to distant regions will also significantly increase the cost. Market research and preliminary contracts with potential clients will help you decide what kind of alcohol you will produce. Depending on this, you should look for suppliers of raw materials, choose the type of equipment and manufacturing method.
If before the production of alcohol in Russia could be done exclusively by the state, then the legislation changed and this industry was given into private hands. Now anyone can start their own line, having issued the necessary permits and licenses. In this article, we will analyze whether the production of alcohol is profitable as a business, whether it makes sense to engage in such a business, what equipment is needed and how, in general, to start the production process.
There are several varieties of alcohol. The type of liquid depends on the initial raw material from which the alcohol is extracted, as well as on the degree of its purification. It can be conditionally divided into two large types: food (used for the production of drinks, cosmetics, etc.) and technical (used in industry). Edible alcohol is made from environmentally friendly natural raw materials: grain, beets, apples, grapes, sugar, etc. Technical alcohol is obtained from oil and wood waste that have undergone hydrolysis. It is forbidden to use technical alcohols in everyday life or in the manufacture of products that come into contact with the human body, since the liquid contains harmful and hazardous substances that can cause irreparable harm to health.
In addition to origin, alcohols are divided according to the degree of purification or, as professionals say, rectification. With the help of special equipment, impurities are removed from it, making the most pure product, after which water is removed. In theory, you can get absolutely pure alcohol, but usually it is not used, since it only needs to be stored in an airtight container. If it comes into contact with air, it draws moisture out of it and dilutes to 96–97 percent. The higher the degree of purification of the liquid, the higher its price, therefore it is necessary to find an optimal balance between the complexity of the purification technology and the requirements for the product.
Let's consider what classification is valid for food alcohols. They are:
- Cereals made from wheat, barley, or malt. Used to make whiskey, vodka and other drinks.
- Grape, obtained from various grape varieties and cake left over from wine making. Used to make brandy and chacha.
- Fruits made from apples and pears. Suitable for creating various liqueurs, liqueurs, etc.
- Berry, and there is a division into berries with large and small bones. Used to create aromatic drinks.
- Cane made from sugar cane. Used to make porridge or rum.
- Flavored, made from various herbs. Flavored alcohols are used for gins, absinthe and other similar drinks.
There are other types of alcohols. For example, in Mexico it is made from agave, in India from rotten vegetables and fruits. But in general, most alcohol is obtained from grains, grapes and fruits.
Purity and technology of alcohol production are regulated by GOSTs. So, for technical, GOST 18300-87 is in force, which establishes three grades: Extra, highest and first (indicated in descending order). For food, GOST R 51652-2021 is in force, which establishes the varieties Alpha, Basis, Lux, Extra, the first grade and the highest purification. For synthetic and denatured alcohols, GOST R 51999-2021 is in force, establishing two types of liquid: premium and first grade. There are also standards for the manufacture of medical alcohol: it must meet the requirements of Pharmacopoeia Articles 42-3071-94g and 42-3072-94g. In general, food and medical alcohols contain a minimum of impurities and water, so they are safe for humans (although poisoning occurs when ingested).
What raw materials to use
Above we wrote that alcohols are obtained from various raw materials. If you plan to organize the production of ethyl alcohol, then you need to adapt to the raw materials that are available in your region. The product can be made from almost any sugar-containing raw material: sugar syrup or molasses, sugar beets, apples, wheat, corn, starch, and more. What is most interesting is that it does not matter in what condition the raw materials are, that is, in fact, you can use apples of the 2nd and 3rd grades, rotten beets, affected barley, etc.
In addition to making alcohol, ethyl alcohol is used in various fields: cosmetology, medicine, household chemicals, as well as in other areas. Therefore, the ethanol business remains profitable, but also requires considerable initial investment. The requirements for the quality of alcohol are different for different industries, but a high-quality product in any case will be in demand at all enterprises, regardless of the specifics of its use.
Most recently, the production of ethyl alcohol was completely monopolized and owned by the state. Now it is another platform for a successful business. The ethyl alcohol market has seen an increase in demand in recent years. First of all, you need to decide whether you are going to produce drinking or technical alcohol. This is important because the subtleties of the technology and some details of the whole process depend on it. It is also necessary to obtain a license for the legal production of alcohol.
Prepared ethanol must be poured into special tanks and cisterns, which are prepared in advance. The material of manufacture of these containers must be adapted to contact with ethanol. The container must be closed with a sealed lid; air vents and safety valves are also available. After the finished product is poured into the tanks, a seal must be fixed on them. The container where the finished product is poured must be marked:
- volume ;
- gross weight;
- container number;
- danger label and classification number and code;
- signature "Flammable liquid".
During transportation, you must comply with the requirements for dangerous goods.
All the necessary premises that belong to the general technological process should be located in one building. Repair shops, as well as various material warehouses are located in the same fenced area with the main building, but separately from it.
According to the rules, the fermentation department of production should be located separately and have supply and exhaust ventilation. It is forbidden to carry out the fermentation process in basements and semi-basements.
Operators from the control room should monitor the entire process. Painting and whitewashing of production facilities is carried out annually. The paint used must be moisture resistant. In those rooms where acids and alkalis are used, the floor is made resistant to aggressive chemicals.
Also, all production areas must be dry and heated. The lowest temperature in the production hall is 8 ° C. Since alcohol is a flammable liquid, fire extinguishing means must be available on the production site: sand, fire extinguishers, an asbestos blanket.
The minimum total area of the premises is from 150 m 2.